What is an Adult Human? / Biology Law Psychology Culture

Photo from Duke Health – group of 10-13 year olds. Biologically, they are adults. Legally they are not. Culturally? Psychologically? Big Questions.

Biological adulthood Wikipedia

Historically and cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined primarily by the start of puberty (the appearance of secondary sex characteristics such as menstruation in women, ejaculation in men, and pubic hair in both sexes). In the past, a person usually moved from the status of child directly to the status of adult, often with this shift being marked by some type of coming-of-age test or ceremony.[1]

After the social construct of adolescence was created, adulthood split into two forms: biological adulthood and social adulthood. Thus, there are now two primary forms of adults: biological adults (people who have attained reproductive ability, are fertile, or who evidence secondary sex characteristics) and social adults (people who are recognized by their culture or law as being adults). Depending on the context, adult can indicate either definition.

Although few or no established dictionaries provide a definition for the two word term biological adult, the first definition of adult in multiple dictionaries includes “the stage of the life cycle of an animal after reproductive capacity has been attained”.[2][3] Thus, the base definition of the word adult is the period beginning at physical sexual maturity, which occurs sometime after the onset of puberty. Although this is the primary definition of the base word “adult”, the term is also frequently used to refer to social adults. The two-word term biological adult stresses or clarifies that the original definition, based on physical maturity, is being used.

In humans, puberty on average begins around 10–11 years of age for girls and 11–12 years of age for boys, though this will vary from person to person. For girls, puberty begins around 10 or 11 years of age and ends around age 16. Boys enter puberty later than girls – usually around 12 years of age and it lasts until around age 16 or 17 (Or in rare cases 18 and a half).[4][5]

There seems to be disagreement on the attainment of adulthood: is it at the start or completion of puberty?

More from Duke Health: https://www.dukehealth.org/blog/when-puberty-too-early

When Is Puberty Too Early?

October 01, 2013

Early Puberty in Girls

For girls, puberty is generally considered to be too early if it begins at age seven or eight. African-American and Hispanic girls tend to start puberty slightly earlier than Caucasian girls. The average age of pubertal onset in girls is 10-and-a-half years old, but it ranges from seven to 13 years old. The average age of menarche is 12-and-a-half to 13 years of age. The whole process of puberty should take three to four years.

Rapidly progressing puberty — start to finish in less than two years — can be a concern as well because it can be due to an endocrine disorder

Early Puberty in Boys

For boys, puberty is generally considered too early before the age of nine years. In boys, onset of puberty is from nine to 14 years, but on average starts at 11-and-a-half to 12 years old. The whole process of puberty should take three to four years. Rapidly progressing puberty can also be a concern in males

Preventing Early Puberty

While genetic factors play a role in the early onset of puberty, parents can help delay the environmental causes of early puberty. Preventive measures include:

  • Encourage your child to maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid exposure to exogenous hormones like estrogen, testosterone, DHEA, androstenedione that may be found in creams/gels, hair treatments, medications, and nutritional supplements. (And who knows where else these powerful hormones are being used and entering environmental systems)

 Psychological Adulthood? 

Here is where we encounter the perils of “socially constructed” opinion about human development: What a mess!

Psychological development

Written By: The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica

Psychological development, the development of human beings’ cognitive, emotional, intellectual, and social capabilities and functioning over the course of the life span, from infancy through old age. It is the subject matter of the discipline known as developmental psychology. Child psychology was the traditional focus of research, but since the mid-20th century much has been learned about infancy and adulthood as well. A brief treatment of psychological development follows. For full treatment, see human behaviour.

Infancy is the period between birth and the acquisition of language one to two years later.

Childhood is the second major phase in human development, childhood, extends from one or two years of age until the onset of adolescence at age 12 or 13.

Adolescence Physically, adolescence begins with the onset of puberty at 12 or 13 and culminates at age 19 or 20 in adulthood.

Hmmm…. a discrepancy of 7-8 YEARS between biological and psychological demarcation for the beginning of adulthood, that is, IF adulthood is the onset of puberty. IF it’s the completion of puberty – the discrepancy is more like 4-5 years.

But! We now have a serious problem: the socially constructed stage called adolescence, interferes with, and contradicts, the biological transition from pre-reproductive childhood, to reproductive adult with no clear transition at all. The result is chaos in education, legal jurisdiction, sex-reproduction-parenting, health, nutrition and behavioral expectations!

Adulthood is a period of optimum mental functioning when the individual’s intellectual, emotional, and social capabilities are at their peak to meet the demands of career, marriage, and children. Some psychologists delineate various periods and transitions in early to middle adulthood that involve crises or reassessments of one’s life and result in decisions regarding new commitments or goals. During the middle 30s people develop a sense of time limitation, and previous behaviour patterns or beliefs may be given up in favour of new ones.

Wow! Just how does a person between the ages of 10-20 years old negotiate this bizarre disconnect between a developmental paradigm “invented” by psychologists, and the physical reality of the human body?

One might expect individual cultures to “help” with this vital transition… 

Cultural Adulthood? 

How the American legal system defines adult status is a crucial cultural factor.  

Adult: A person who by virtue of attaining a certain age, generally eighteen, is regarded in the eyes of the law as being able to manage his or her own affairs.

Wow! Highly optimistic and unrealistic in American culture, which overwhelmingly advocates for the indefinite postponement of adulthood… 

Note that American education does little to nothing to prepare children, adolescents, and now “emerging adults” (a new category of underdeveloped Homo sapiens that is MEASURED BY the subjective “feeling” of being adult) for these sudden legal and financial facts of life.  This dithering over adult status is the “privilege” of the wealth classes; poor and minority children too often become “instant adults” – in a jail cell.  

The age specified by law, called the legal age of majority, indicates that a person acquires full legal capacity to be bound by various documents, such as contracts and deeds, that he or she makes with others and to commit other legal acts such as voting in elections and entering marriage. The age at which a person becomes an adult varies from state to state and often varies within a state, depending upon the nature of the action taken by the person. Thus, a person wishing to obtain a license to operate a motor vehicle may be considered an adult at age sixteen, but may not reach adulthood until age eighteen for purposes of marriage, or age twenty-one for purposes of purchasing intoxicating liquors.

Anyone who has not reached the age of adulthood is legally considered an infant. (!! Really?) West’s Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

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A Cheery Look at Childhood in Western Cultures / PSYCHOHISTORY

Lloyd deMause, pronounced de-Moss is an American social thinker known for his work in the field of psychohistory. Wikipedia

Born: September 19, 1931 (age 86), Detroit, MI Education: Columbia University

FOUNDATIONS OF
PSYCHOHISTORY
by LLOYD DEMAUSE

The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken. The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of child care, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorized, and sexually abused. It is our task here to see how much of this childhood history can be recaptured from the evidence that remains to us.

That this pattern has not previously been noticed by historians is because serious history has long been considered a record of public not private events. Historians have concentrated so much on the noisy sand-box of history, with its fantastic castles and magnificent battles, that they have generally ignored what is going on in the homes around the playground. And where historians usually look to the sandbox battles of yesterday for the causes of those of today, we instead ask how each generation of parents and children creates those issues which are later acted out in the arena of public life.

At first glance, this lack of interest in the lives of children seems odd. Historians have been traditionally committed to explaining continuity and change over time, and ever since Plato it has been known that child-hood is a key to this understanding. The importance of parent-child relations for social change was hardly discovered by Freud; St. Augustine’s cry, “Give me other mothers and I will give you another world,” has been echoed by major thinkers for fifteen centuries without affecting historical writing. Since Freud, of course, our view of childhood has acquired a new dimension, and in the past half century the study of childhood has become routine for the psychologist, the sociologist, and the anthropologist. It is only beginning for the historian. Such determined avoidance requires an explanation.

Full PDF: http://psychohistory.com/books/foundations-of-psychohistory/chapter-1-the-evolution-of-childhood/

 

“Free Range Children” / Parenting Option

Click “Watch on YouTube” 

I’m in dangerous territory here, not being a “sacred” mother. As a childless woman, my advice is, DO NOT give parenting advice, or even an offhand opinion to a child-bearing female if you value your life and sanity. LOL. This includes pet behavior, training and feeding. These are domains that it seems, every woman who has popped-out an infant or adopted an animal, is convinced beyond reason, that by virtue of these acts, is an absolute expert on all things “nurturing” – without any training whatsoever.

And yes, the people who have commented on the video are highly negative….

My thoughts on this video?

  1. I could not do this type of parenting, or any other type of parenting. The noise level and physical chaos would drive me mad.
  2. The objections raised seem ridiculous. Children don’t learn much of anything in American public schools; significantly, math, science, history, reading, writing, logic or critical thinking.
  3. The average American doesn’t know, remember, understand or use academic information.
  4. Children need survival skills: these include how to earn money, how to manage money, how the “real world” works (nature and science), how to solve problems; how to access information and evaluate that information for accuracy and utility; and how to recognize consequences that will unfold from one’s choices.
  5. The “free range” parenting style is closer to how most humans have experienced childhood during the last 200,000 years. The difference lies in how much labor is involved in “making a living” and therefore, the level of labor children must contribute to helping the family to survive.
  6. American kids eat a high calorie junk food and sugar “diet” and are preoccupied with social media, social status and violent entertainment. How is that better than how this family spends time?
  7. American child-rearing is reward / punishment based; cruel, conformist and obedience-obsessed. Bad behavior is an inevitable result of this “belligerant” hierarchical structure.
  8. See posts on Hunter-Gatherer child rearing. That said, I doubt that even a small percentage of Americans are equipped to make this more “natural” child-parent relationship work.

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2017/11/10/jared-diamond-hunter-gatherer-parenting/

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2015/11/09/self-education-hunter-gatherer-play/

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/more-on-hunter-gatherer-child-education/

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2016/01/31/children-of-hunter-gatherers-asperger-traits/

 

 

Physical Education and Sport / Ancient Times to Enlightenment

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH / Vol. 2, No. 4, 191-202 / ISSN 2165-8714 Copyright © 2013 EUJER

“Bikini Girls” exercising, Sicily, 4th C. AD

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086323.pdf

Harmandar Demirel & Yıldıran / Dumlupinar University, Gazi University, Turkey

(I’ve broken the text into shorter paragraphs for easier reading and omitted some introductory material. Complete pdf is about 8 pages. I’ve high-lightened a few main ideas and vocabulary.)

My general comment is that American Public Education is essentially less “sophisticated” than even Ancient Greece and Rome; a disgrace and “Medieval”…

An Overview from the Ancient Age to the Renaissance

The Greek educational ideal which emerged during the 8th – 6th centuries B.C. aimed at developing general fitness via “gymnastics” and the “music” of the body; that is, the development of body and spirit in a harmonic body and, in this way, providing a beautiful body, mental development and spiritual and moral hygiene. These are expressed by the word Kalokagathia, meaning both beautiful and good, based on the words “Kalos” and “Agathos” (Aytaç, 1980; Alpman, 1972). Thus, the use of physical training and sport as the most suitable means as discussed first in Ancient Greece (Yildiran, 2005). To achieve the ideal of kalokagathia, three conditions were required: nobility, correct behaviour and careful teaching (Yildiran, 2011). Physical beauty (kalos) did not refer just to external appearance; it also referred to mental health. Humans who had these qualifications were considered ideal humans (kalokagathos) (Bohus, 1986). The idea of the Kalokagathia ideal, which was developed during the early classical age, had seen archaic-aristocratic high value “arete”s thinned and deepened (Popplow, 1972).

The vital point of aristocratic culture was physical training; in a sense, it was sport. The children were prepared for various sport competitions under the supervision of a paidotribes (a physical education teacher) and learned horse riding, discus and javelin throwing, long jumping, wrestling and boxing. The aim of the sport was to develop and strengthen the body, and hence, the character (Duruskken, 2001). In Ancient Greece, boys attended wrestling schools because it was believed that playing sports beautified the human spirit as well as the body (Balcı, 2008). The palaestra was a special building within ancient gymnasiums where wrestling and physical training were practiced (Saltuk, 1990). The education practiced in this era covered gymnastic training and music education, and its aim was to develop a heroic mentality, but only for royalty. With this goal in mind, education aimed to discipline the body, raising an agile warrior by developing a cheerful and brave spirit (Aytac, 1980).

The feasts which were held to worship the gods in Ancient Greece began for the purpose of ending civil wars. All sport-centred activities were of religious character. As the ancient Olympic Games were of religious origin, they were conducted in Olympia. (Home of the gods) Over time, running distances increased, new and different games were added to the schedule, soldiers began to use armour in warfare, art and philosophy were understood better and great interest was shown in the Olympic Games; therefore, the program was enriched and changed, and the competitions were increased from one to five days (Er et al., 2005). However, the active or passive attendance of married women was banned at the ancient Olympic Games for religious reasons (Memis and Yıldıran, 2011). The Olympic Games had an important function as one of the elements aimed at uniting the ancient Greeks culturally, but this ended when the games were banned by Emperor Theodosius 1st in 393-4 A.D. (Balci, 2008).

Sparta, which is located in the present-day Mora peninsula, was an agricultural state that had been formed by the immigration of Dors from the 8th century B.C. Spartan education provided an extremely paternalistic education, which sought the complete submergence of the individual in the citizen and provided him with the attributes of courage, complete obedience and physical perfection (Cordasco, 1976). In Sparta, where the foundations of social order constituted iron discipline, military proficiency, strictness and absolute obedience, the peaceful stages of life had the character of a “preparation for the war school” (Aytac, 1980). The essential thing that made Hellenic culture important was its gaining new dimensions with distinctive creative power regarding cultural factors that this culture had adopted from the ancient east, and its revealing of the concept of the “perfect human” (Iplikcioglu, 1997).

Children stayed with their family until they were seven years old; from this age, they were assigned to the state-operated training institutes where they were trained strictly in war and state tasks. Strengthening the body and preparing for war took a foremost place in accordance with the military character of the state. Girls were also given a strict military training (Aytac, 1980). The same training given to the boys was also given to the girls. The most prominent example of this is the girls and boys doing gymnastics together (Russel, 1969). Although physical training and music education were included, reading, writing and arithmetic were barely included in Spartan education (Binbasioglu, 1982).

Unlike Sparta, the classical period of Athenian democracy (Athens had advanced trade and industry) included the Persian Wars and Peloponnese Wars, and Cleisthenes’ democratic reforms and the ending of sea domination in domestic policy. As this democracy covered “the independent layer”, it took the form of an “aristocratic democracy” (Aytaç, 1980). Learning was given great importance in the Athenian democracy. The sons of independent citizens received education in grammar and at home or private school. Music education and gymnastic training were carried out in “Gymnasiums” and “Palestrae”, which were built and controlled by the state; running areas were called “Dramos”, and chariot race areas were termed “Hippodromes” (Aytac, 1980). Children older than 12 years started receiving sports training and music education in Athens, where the military training was barely included.

Athenians insisted on the aesthetical and emotional aspects of education. Therefore, the best art works of the ancient world were created in this country (Binbasioglu, 1982). As in the 5th century B.C., Greek education was unable to appropriately respond to new developments; Sophists emphasised the development of traditional education in terms of language and rhetoric in an attempt to overcome the crisis. Sophists provided education in the morals, law, and the natural sciences in addition to the trivium, grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) (Aytac, 1980).

Greeks considered physical training prudent and important because it developed the body and organised games conducive to the gathering of large crowds; in these games, all regions of Greece were represented (Balci, 2008). Rome constitutes the second most important civilisation of the Ancient age. In Rome, the family played the strongest role in education, and the state did not have much say or importance. While exercise constituted the means of education in Ancient Rome, the purpose of this education was “to raise a good citizen”, such that each person had a skilled, righteous and steady character. Physical training was provided in addition to courses such as mythology, history, geography, jurisprudence, arithmetic, geometry and philosophy; this training was provided in Grammar schools, where basic teaching covered the “Seven free arts” (Aytac, 1980).

Due to the Scholastic structure of the Middle Ages, values respecting the human were forgotten. However, the “Renaissance” movement, which started in Europe and whose ideas inform the modern world, developed many theories related to education and physical training and attempted to apply this in various ways; the development of these ideas was continued in “The Age of Enlightenment”.

The Renaissance General Aspects of the Renaissance

The word renaissance means “rebirth”; in this period, artists and philosophers tried to discover and learn the standards of Ancient Rome and Athens (Perry et al., 1989). In the main, the Renaissance represented a protest of individualism against authority in the intellectual and social aspects of life (Singer, 1960). Renaissance reminded “Beauty’’ lovers of the development of a new art and imagination. From the perspective of a scientist, the Renaissance represented innovation in ancient sciences, and from the perspective of a jurist, it was a light shining over the shambles of old traditions.

Human beings found their individuality again during this era, in which they tried to understand the basics of nature and developed a sense of justice and logic. However, the real meaning of “renaissance” was to be decent and kind to nature (Michelet, 1996). The Renaissance was shaped in Italy beginning from the 1350s as a modern idea contradicting the Middle Ages. The creation of a movement for returning to the old age with the formidable memories of Rome naturally seemed plausible (Mcneill, 1985). New ideas that flourished in the world of Middle Age art and developed via various factors did not just arise by accident; incidents and thoughts that developed in a social context supported it strongly (Turani, 2003). Having reached its climax approximately in the 1500s, the Italian Renaissance constituted the peak of the Renaissance; Leonardo da Vinci observed the outside world, people and objects captiously via his art and Niccolo Machiavelli’s drastically analysed nature and use of politics through his personal experiences and a survey of classical writers (Mcneill, 1985).

The Concept of Education and Approaches to Physical Training during the Renaissance

The humanist education model, which was concordant with the epitomes of the Renaissance, was a miscellaneous, creative idea. Its goal was to create an all-round advanced human being, “homo universale”. At the same time, such an educational epitome necessarily gained an aristocratic character. This educational epitome no longer provided education to students at school (Aytac, 1980).

In 14th century, the “humanist life epitome” was claimed. The humanism movement was gradually developing and spreading; however, in this phase, humanism-based formation or practice was not in question. In the history of humanity, the humanism period has been acknowledged as a ‘transitional period’. Modern civilisation and education is based on this period. Philosophers, such as Erasmus, Rabelais, Montaigne and Luther, flourished during this period. Universities began to multiply, and latitudinarianism was created. Scholastic thought was shaken from its foundations at the beginning of this period via the influence of Roger Bacon (scientist), who lived during the 13th Century.

Original forms of works constituting the culture of Ancient Athens and Rome were found, read, and recreated concordantly; moreover, the ideas of latitudinarian, old educators such as Quintilianus were practiced. In teaching methods, formulae enabling pupils to improve their skills and abilities were adopted. Students started to learn outdoors, in touch with nature. Strict disciplinary methods gave way to rather tolerant methods. The importance and value of professional education were acknowledged (Binbasioglu, 1982). Positive sciences, such as history, geography and natural history were not given a place in the classroom for a long time, but Latin preserved its place until recent times (Aytac, 1980).

With Desiderius von Erasmus, who was alive during the height of European humanism, humanism adopted its first scientific principle: “Return to sources!’’; for this reason, the works of ancient writers were published. Erasmus’ educational epitome consists of a humanist-scientific formulation; however, it does not externalise the moral-religious lifestyle. Having worked to expand humanity into higher levels, Erasmus summarises the conditions for this quest as follows: good teachers, a useful curriculum, good pedagogical methods, and paying attention to personal differences among pupils. With these ideas, Erasmus represents the height of German humanist pedagogy (Aytaç, 1980).

Notice the antagonistic set up between faith and science we still experience today in the U.S.?

On the other hand, Martin Luther considered universities as institutions where “all kinds of iniquity took place, there was little faith to sacred values, and the profane master Aristotle was taught imprudently” and he demanded that schools and especially universities be inspected. Luther thought that schools and universities should teach religiously inclined youth in a manner heavily dependent on the Christian religion (Aytac, 1980). Alongside these ideas, Luther made statements about the benefits of chivalric games and training, and of wrestling and jumping to health, which, in his opinion, could make the body more fit (Alpman, 1972).

The French philosopher Michel de Montaigne, known for his “Essays”, was a lover of literature who avoided any kind of extreme and was determined, careful and balanced. In his opinion, the aim of education was to transfer “ethical and scientific knowledge via experiments’’ to pupils. De Montaigne believed that a person’s skills and abilities in education, which can be called natural powers, are more important than or even superior to logic and society (Binbasioglu, 1982). The Humanist movement has played a very significant role in educational issues. This movement flourished in order to resurrect the art and culture of ancient Athens and Rome with their formidable aspects, thereby enabling body and soul to improve concordantly with the education of humans (Alpman, 1972). Humanism was not a philosophical system but a cultural and educational program (Kristeller, 1961).

Note that in the United States, current public education is obsessed with “social engineering” based on two religious ideologies: (1. liberal / puritanical – (social and psychological theory-based; conformity to prescriptive “absolutes” of human behavior.) 2.  evangelical – anti-science, faith-based denial of reality; socio-emotional fervor.) These competing religious systems have replaced a brief period of “humanist” academic emphasis; the arts and physical education have been jettisoned, supposedly due to “budget” limitations… but this elimination of “expressions of individual human value” is a choice made by parents and educators to “ban” secular ideals from education)  

The necessity of physical training along with education of soul and mind has been emphasised; for this reason, physical practices and games have been suggested for young people. It is possible to see how the humanists formed the foundations of the Renaissance, beginning from the 14th century to the 18th century and working from Italy to Spain, Germany, France and England. Almost all of the humanists stated the significance of physical training in their written works on education (Alpman, 1972).

One of the humanists, Vittorino da Feltre may have viewed it as the most pleasant goal of his life to raise a group of teenagers and fed and educated poor but talented children at his home (Burckhardt, 1974). Feltre practiced a classical education in his school called “Joyful Residence”. In accord with Ancient Greek education concepts, he claimed that benefits were provided by the education of body and soul through daily exercises such as swimming, riding and swordplay, and generating love towards nature via hiking; he also emphasised the importance of games and tournaments (Alpman, 1972; Aytac, 1980). Enea Silvio de Piccolomini is also worthy of attention; alongside his religious character, he thought that physical training should be emphasised and that beauty and power should be improved in this way (Alpman, 1972). de Piccolomini attracted attention to the importance of education as a basis for body and soul while stressing the importance of avoiding things that cause laxity, games and resting (Aytac, 1980). Juan Ludwig Vives, a systematic philosopher who had multiple influences, in one of his most significant works “De Tradendis Disciplinis”, which was published in 1531, advised such practices as competitive ball playing, hiking, jogging, wrestling and braggartism, beginning from the age of 15 (Alpman, 1972).

The German humanist Joachim Camerarius, who managed the academic gymnasium in the city of Nürnberg, is also very important in relation to this subject. Having practicing systematic physical training at the school in which he worked, Camerarius wrote his work, “Dialogus de Cymnasis”, which refers to the pedagogical and ethical values of Greek gymnastics. In this work, he stressed such practices as climbing, jogging, wrestling, swordplay, jumping, stone throwing and games that were practiced by specially selected children according to their ages and physical abilities, all under the supervision of experienced teachers (Alpman, 1972). The Italian Hieronymus Mercurialis’ De Arte Gymnastica, first published in Latin in Venice in 1569, contained very little on the Olympic Games. Indeed, the author was hostile to the idea of competitive athletics. The Frenchman Petrus Faber’s Agonisticon (1592), in its 360 pages of Latin text, brought together in one place many ancient texts concerning the Olympics but was disorganised, repetitive and often unclear (Lee, 2003). The first part of the De Arte Gymnastica included the definition of Ancient Greek gymnastics and an explanation of actual terminology whereas the second part contained precautions about the potential harms of exercises practiced in the absence of a doctor. Moreover, he separated gymnastics practised for health reasons from military gymnastics (Alpman, 1972).

Note the military requirement for it’s personnel to be “physically fit” compared to the general U.S. population, (including children), which is chronically obese, sedentary and unhealthy. “Being physically fit” (at least the appearance of) is now a status symbol of the wealth classes and social celebrities, requiring personal trainers, expensive spa and gym facilities, and high-tech gadgets and equipment.    

The Transition to the Age of Enlightenment: Reformation, Counter-reformation and the Age of Method

The Age of Reformation: The most significant feature of European cultural life during this age was the dominant role played by religious issues, unlike the Renaissance in Italy (Mcneill, 1985). This age symbolises the uprising of less civilised societies against logic-dominated Italy (Russell, 2002). Bearing a different character from Renaissance and Humanism, the Reformation did not stress improvements in modern art or science, but rather improvements in politics and the Church; consonant with this, its education epitome emphasised being religious and dependent on the Church. Nevertheless, both Humanism and the Reformation struggled against Middle Ages scholasticism, and both appreciated the value of human beings (Aytac, 1980).

The Counter-reformation Movement: In this period, which includes the movement of the Catholic church to retake privileges that it had lost due to the Reformation, the “Jesuit Sect’’ was founded to preach, confess and collect “perverted minds’’ once again under the roof of the Catholic church via teaching activities (Aytac, 1980).

The Age of Method: Also known as the Age of Practice, this period saw efforts to save people from prejudice, and principles for religion, ethics, law and state were sought to provide systematic knowledge in a logic-based construction. Aesthetic educational approaches, which were ignored by religion and the Church because of the attitudes prevailing during the Reformation and Counterreformation, were given fresh emphasis. Bacon, Locke, Ratke, Komensky, Descartes and Comenius are among the famous philosophers who lived during this period (Aytac, 1980).

The Age of Enlightenment General Features and Educational Concepts of the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment Period had made itself clear approximately between 1680 and 1770 or even 1780. Science developed into separate disciplines, literature became an independent subject, and it was demanded that history also become independent (Chaunu, 2000). During this period, educators transformed the concept of education from preparing students for the afterlife into preparing them for the world around them, so that they could be free and enlightened.

Moreover, educators of the period were usually optimistic and stressed the importance of study and work. At school, students were educated in such a way as to engrain a love of nature and human beings. Based on these ideas, learning was undertaken by experiment and experience (Binbasioglu, 1982). William Shakespeare mentioned the concept of “Fair Play” and the ideas of “maintain equality of opportunity” and “show the cavalier style of thinking” at the end of the 16th century; by the 18th century, these ideas were included in sport (Gillmeister, 1988). Systematic changes in the foundations of the principles of fair play that occurred in the 19th century were directly related to the socio-cultural structure of Victorian England (Yildiran, 1992).

The Concept of Physical Training during the Enlightenment and Its Pioneers Ideas and epitomes produced prior to this period were ultimately practiced in this period. Respected educators of the period stressed the significance of physical training, which appealed only to the aristocracy during the Renaissance; simulating the education system of the Ancient Age, educators started to address everyone from all classes and their views spread concordantly in this period.

John Locke: The Enlightenment reached maturity during the mid-to late eighteenth century. John Locke, a lead player in this new intellectual movement (Faiella, 2006), was likely the most popular political philosopher during the first part of the 18th century, who stressed the necessity of education (Perry et al., 1989). Locke’s “Essay on Human Intellect” is acknowledged as his most prominent and popular work (Russell, 2002). His work, “Notions of Education” stressed the importance of child health, advised children to learn swimming and to maintain their fitness. Moreover, Locke noted that such activities as dance, swordplay and riding were essential for a gentleman (Alpman, 1972) and that education should be infused with game play (Binbaşıoğlu, 1982).

Jean Jacques Rousseau: in his work, Emile, the philosopher from Geneva discussed educational matters in regard to the principles of nature (Russell, 2002). In this work, which he wrote in (1762) Rousseau argued that individuals should learn from nature, human beings or objects (Perry et al., 1989), and expressed his notions concerning the education of children and teenagers (Binbasioglu, 1982). Rousseau held that children should be allowed to develop and learn according to their natural inclinations, but in Emile, this goal was achieved by a tutor who cunningly manipulated his pupil’s responses (Damrosch, 2007). The aforesaid education was termed “Natural education’’ of the public or “education which will create natural human beings’’ (Aytaç, 1980). Emile exercised early in the morning because he needed strength, and because a strong body was the basic requirement for a healthy soul. Running with bare feet, high jumping, and climbing walls and trees, Emile mastered such skills as jogging, swimming, stone throwing, archery and ball games. Rousseau demanded that every school would have a gymnasium or an area for training (Alpman, 1972).

Continued next post. Time to watch the Olympics!

When you finally realize “you’ve been had”

I remember exactly the moment when I realized that “I’d been had” – meaning, that the “story” I’d been told all my life about who I was and where I fit in the human universe was a lie.

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A young man I was dating had driven us to a resort in the mountains and we were having lunch outside on a deck overlooking a stream; we were in the “getting to know you” stage and he was easy to talk to. Very bright – a medical student – open, warm and chatty (and extremely OCD I later discovered.) He came from a medical family and seemed to be happy following his father into medicine. I was undiagnosed (Asperger) at the time (mid-twenties) and very much enjoying my life (I thought).

As he revealed his “story” I began to think out loud about my family, my school experiences, and my relationships. The official story went like this:

My grades at school were great; teachers liked me, my parents were happy, and I got all kinds of special treatment. But, — and the truth was suddenly apparent.

The special treatment I supposedly got was actually punishment: I was not allowed to participate at my intellectual level in class and I was excluded from extracurricular activities: my social awkwardness was used to hold participation hostage until I somehow “reformed” myself. I was effectively “benched” for being ahead of the class; not allowed to answer questions in class, to talk about anything, really. I sat with my books and papers open to exercises that we wouldn’t get to for weeks, filling in answers and erasing them, just for something to do. I gradually drifted off to my own, far more interesting world.

Of course the other kids saw this “reward-punishment” charade as special attention, and as kids do, followed the example set for them and piled on the hostility, which I didn’t even recognize as bullying. 

At home a different dynamic played out, but effectively with the same result. My brother was six years older, my mother’s “baby” and he was allowed to avoid anything he didn’t want to do by “being ill.” He needed help and attention; I didn’t. The excuse for “abandoning” me became a broken record in my mother’s mouth: “You have everything; you’re smart and pretty and life is so easy for you. My childhood was horrible: you don’t know what suffering is. You’re strong – you don’t need anything from other people, especially me. Don’t be a greedy cry-baby.”

“Go away” was the message, year in and year out. So, I did. I didn’t start out strong, but I became strong, because it was necessary. Being strong has its own perils. So does being pretty – I was excluded from social circles and events because the other girls wanted the boys to themselves.

On that lovely summer day in the mountains, I finally “got it.” My mother and brother and teachers and bosses, and even a few friends, had tricked my honest and trusting   Asperger brain by offering compliments that were meant to be express criticism and rejection. I was naïve and stupid in social terms, and had no clue that this was “how the human universe works.”

You’re wonderful; we hate you.

I wonder how many Asperger females identify with this experience?

On the other hand, this hurtful realization was utterly necessary to creating a life outside the prison of social expectations. It wasn’t easy to say “no” to the established status quo, especially for a young woman seeking meaningful work and an independent life and being criticized constantly for outlandish “unladylike” ambition.

It’s not women’s’ lack of abilities that keeps us down; a social agenda remains today that undermines intellect, by defining femininity itself as being a hyper-sexualized little girl; dumb, vulnerable and forever infantile. It’s very sad to see adult women, who are 30, 40, 50 years old, spending precious time and scarce money on diets, phony rejuvenation products, fashion fads, hideous make up, false hair, false breasts, false butts, and childish obsessions with novel “social media trends” while competing with their own daughters, like pitiful clowns hoping for a scrap of attention.

Anti-female policies are built into the social system at all levels. It’s time for women to understand that “You’ve been had.”

How America Lost Its Mind / Atlantic Magazine – Rant by a Neurotypical Person

Sept. 2017 Kurt Anderson

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/how-america-lost-its-mind/534231/

When did America become untethered from reality?

I first noticed our national lurch toward fantasy in 2004, after President George W. Bush’s political mastermind, Karl Rove, came up with the remarkable phrase reality-based community. People in “the reality-based community,” he told a reporter, “believe that solutions emerge from your judicious study of discernible reality … That’s not the way the world really works anymore.”

A year later, The Colbert Report went on the air. In the first few minutes of the first episode, Stephen Colbert, playing his right-wing-populist commentator character, performed a feature called “The Word.” His first selection: truthiness. “Now, I’m sure some of the ‘word police,’ the ‘wordinistas’ over at Webster’s, are gonna say, ‘Hey, that’s not a word!’ Well, anybody who knows me knows that I’m no fan of dictionaries or reference books. They’re elitist. Constantly telling us what is or isn’t true. Or what did or didn’t happen. Who’s Britannica to tell me the Panama Canal was finished in 1914? If I wanna say it happened in 1941, that’s my right. I don’t trust books—they’re all fact, no heart … Face it, folks, we are a divided nation … divided between those who think with their head and those who know with their heart … Because that’s where the truth comes from, ladies and gentlemen—the gut.”

Whoa, yes, I thought: exactly. America had changed since I was young, when truthiness and reality-based community wouldn’t have made any sense as jokes. For all the fun, and all the many salutary effects of the 1960s—the main decade of my childhood—I saw that those years had also been the big-bang moment for truthiness. And if the ’60s amounted to a national nervous breakdown, we are probably mistaken to consider ourselves over it. The 1960s were Hell for an Asperger: I was constantly berated and attacked for being a “Fact Nazi” by people who were truly manifesting a “neoteny psychosis”. 

Each of us is on a spectrum somewhere between the poles of rational and irrational.

OMG! This guy is nuts; guilty of the neurotypical nonsense he’s complaining about! Can we PLEASE stop using “spectrum” to “mush together” mental processes (and everything else) into an undifferentiated wad of goo that somehow spans the gulf between imaginary “polarized, black and white” neurotypical stupidity?  

We all have hunches we can’t prove and superstitions that make no sense. Some of my best friends are very religious, and others believe in dubious conspiracy theories. What’s problematic is going overboard—letting the subjective entirely override the objective; thinking and acting as if opinions and feelings are just as true as facts. The American experiment, the original embodiment of the great Enlightenment idea of intellectual freedom, whereby every individual is welcome to believe anything she wishes, has metastasized out of control. OMG! What an idiotic neurotypical “interpretation” of “Enlightened” intellectual freedom. 

From the start, our ultra-individualism (this did not exist in foundational colonies, which were the opposite: conformist to narrow religious dogma to the extreme) was attached to epic dreams, sometimes epic fantasies—every American one of God’s chosen people building a custom-made utopia, all of us free to reinvent ourselves by imagination and will. In America nowadays, those more exciting parts of the Enlightenment idea have swamped the sober, rational, empirical parts. Little by little for centuries, then more and more and faster and faster during the past half century, we Americans have given ourselves over to all kinds of magical thinking, anything-goes relativism, and belief in fanciful explanation—small and large fantasies that console or thrill or terrify us. And most of us haven’t realized how far-reaching our strange new normal has become. (OMG! What a garbled string of “factoids” strung together as nonsense. America was founded by “magical thinkers” – highly religious crackpots drummed out of Europe by people fed up with their insane hatred of happiness as a worthy experience. The “rational” element was always a finite minority of self-interested “gentleman” who wanted the riches and rights reserved for the Aristocracy to be available to THEIR CLASS.  

Much more than the other billion or so people in the developed world, we Americans believe—really believe—in the supernatural and the miraculous, in Satan on Earth, in reports of recent trips to and from heaven, and in a story of life’s instantaneous creation several thousand years ago.

If the 1960s amounted to a national nervous breakdown, we are probably mistaken to consider ourselves over it.

We believe that the government and its co-conspirators are hiding all sorts of monstrous and shocking truths from us, concerning assassinations, extraterrestrials, the genesis of aids, the 9/11 attacks, the dangers of vaccines, and so much more. And this was all true before we became familiar with the terms post-factual and post-truth, before we elected a president with an astoundingly open mind about conspiracy theories, what’s true and what’s false, the nature of reality. We have passed through the looking glass and down the rabbit hole. America has mutated into Fantasyland.

How widespread is this promiscuous devotion to the untrue? How many Americans now inhabit alternate realities? Any given survey of beliefs is only a sketch of what people in general really think. But reams of survey research from the past 20 years reveal a rough, useful census of American credulity and delusion. By my reckoning, the solidly reality-based are a minority, maybe a third of us but almost certainly fewer than half. Wildly optimistic; and PLEASE don’t include yourself in the reality-based minority. LOL)

Only a third of us, for instance, don’t believe that the tale of creation in Genesis is the word of God. Only a third strongly disbelieve in telepathy and ghosts. Two-thirds of Americans believe that “angels and demons are active in the world.” More than half say they’re absolutely certain heaven exists, and just as many are sure of the existence of a personal God—not a vague force or universal spirit or higher power, but some guy. A third of us believe not only that global warming is no big deal but that it’s a hoax perpetrated by scientists, the government, and journalists. A third believe that our earliest ancestors were humans just like us; that the government has, in league with the pharmaceutical industry, hidden evidence of natural cancer cures; that extraterrestrials have visited or are visiting Earth. Almost a quarter believe that vaccines cause autism, and that Donald Trump won the popular vote in 2016. A quarter believe that our previous president maybe or definitely was (or is?) the anti-Christ. According to a survey by Public Policy Polling, 15 percent believe that the “media or the government adds secret mind-controlling technology to television broadcast signals,” and another 15 percent think that’s possible. A quarter of Americans believe in witches. Remarkably, the same fraction, or maybe less, believes that the Bible consists mainly of legends and fables—the same proportion that believes U.S. officials were complicit in the 9/11 attacks.

When I say that a third believe X and a quarter believe Y, it’s important to understand that those are different thirds and quarters of the population. Of course, various fantasy constituencies overlap and feed one another—for instance, belief in extraterrestrial visitation and abduction can lead to belief in vast government cover-ups, which can lead to belief in still more wide-ranging plots and cabals, which can jibe with a belief in an impending Armageddon.

None of this “listing of crazy beliefs” cancels out (by the neurotypical “matter-antimatter” principle of magic word opposition) or precludes ACTUAL conspiracies, predation, cover ups or exploitation by corporations and lobbyists, government agencies, special interests, the “Religion Industry” and political parties for misuse of power.

Why are we like this?

The short answer is because we’re Americans—because being American means we can believe anything we want; that our beliefs are equal or superior to anyone else’s, experts be damned. Once people commit to that approach, the world turns inside out, and no cause-and-effect connection is fixed. The credible becomes incredible and the incredible credible. Typical neurotypical defeatism when faced with a tough question, because “word magic” is the only option for problem-solving, and word magic fails when confronting fact. 

The word mainstream has recently become a pejorative, shorthand for bias, lies, oppression by the elites. Yet the institutions and forces that once kept us from indulging the flagrantly untrue or absurd—media, academia, government, corporate America, professional associations, respectable opinion in the aggregate—have enabled and encouraged every species of fantasy over the past few decades. How naive! It was these very institutions that “lied about reality” (everything is perfect; trust us) while specializing in unethical and immoral behavior at all levels of power, within American government, and in foreign policy.   

A senior physician at one of America’s most prestigious university hospitals promotes “miracle cures” on his daily TV show. (The medical industry has always done this) Cable channels air documentaries treating mermaids, monsters, ghosts, and angels as real. When a political-science professor attacks the idea “that there is some ‘public’ that shares a notion of reality, a concept of reason, and a set of criteria by which claims to reason and rationality are judged,” colleagues just nod and grant tenure. The old fringes have been folded into the new center. The irrational has become respectable and often unstoppable. This is the normal neurotypical condition, and has been, for thousands of years. 

Our whole social environment and each of its overlapping parts (the delusion of “parts” again, instead of integrated systems of activity)cultural, religious, political, intellectual, psychological—have become conducive to spectacular fallacy and truthiness and make-believe. There are many slippery slopes, leading in various directions to other exciting nonsense. During the past several decades, those naturally slippery slopes have been turned into a colossal and permanent complex of interconnected, crisscrossing bobsled tracks, which Donald Trump slid down right into the White House. Oh please! How naïve: this is what passes for analysis? Americans traditionally resort to the knee-jerk superstition that “evil” is an eruption  of “chaos” into a perfectly organized neurotypical universe, the existence of which is a fantastical irrational construction; a pathetic denial of insanity within.   

American moxie has always come in two types. We have our wilder, faster, looser side: We’re overexcited gamblers with a weakness for stories too good to be true. But we also have the virtues embodied by the Puritans and their secular descendants: steadiness, hard work, frugality, sobriety, and common sense. (And an arrogant, ugly do-gooder, busybody, know-it-all obsession with abusing other humans.)  A propensity to dream impossible dreams is like other powerful tendencies—okay when kept in check. For most of our history, the impulses existed in a rough balance, a dynamic equilibrium between fantasy and reality, mania and moderation, credulity and skepticism. Total fantasy: and note the continuing limitation of neurotypical addiction to polarized thinking: Either / or behavior; a tug of war between the devil and angel in your soul; black or white; one extreme or the other; yatta yatta! It’s just plain infantile… 

The great unbalancing and descent into full Fantasyland was the product of two momentous changes. The first was a profound shift in thinking that swelled up in the ’60s; since then, Americans have had a new rule written into their mental operating systems: Do your own thing, find your own reality, it’s all relative. A blossoming of   neoteny in Americans.

The second change was the onset of the new era of information. Digital technology empowers real-seeming fictions of the ideological and religious and scientific kinds. Among the web’s 1 billion sites, believers in anything and everything can find thousands of fellow fantasists, with collages of facts and “facts” to support them. Before the internet, crackpots were mostly isolated, and surely had a harder time remaining convinced of their alternate realities. (Single crackpots are rarely effective; it’s those who gather together in the thousands – or millions – who are dangerous). Opinions are all over the airwaves and the web, just like actual news. Now all of the fantasies look real.

Our shocking Trump moment is just the ultimate expression of mind-sets that have made America exceptional for its entire history. Hmmm… magical thinking; attributing an election outcome to some “disturbance in the ether” caused by “ghostly persons” that reach out from the past to “f— things up”. It couldn’t be that elections are simply a mirage? A fool’s drama of people casting meaningless ballots in a charade of democracy, which is in real terms, a “slug fest” for power and control by opposing elites? 

Today, each of us is freer than ever to custom-make reality, to believe whatever and pretend to be whoever we wish. (From what external entity does this mysterious permission arise?) Which makes all the lines between actual and fictional blur and disappear more easily. Truth in general becomes flexible, personal, subjective. And we like this new ultra-freedom, insist on it, even as we fear and loathe the ways so many of our wrongheaded fellow Americans use it. Us and them duality again; I’m right-headed, you are wrong-headed.

Treating real life as fantasy and vice versa, and taking preposterous ideas seriously, is not unique to Americans. But we are the global crucible and epicenter. (Rather arrogant assumption. We always have to be the Best!) We invented the fantasy-industrial complex; almost nowhere outside poor or otherwise miserable countries are flamboyant supernatural beliefs so central to the identities of so many people. This is American exceptionalism in the 21st century. The country has always been a one-of-a-kind place. But our singularity is different now. We’re still rich and free, still more influential and powerful than any other nation, practically a synonym for developed country. But our drift toward credulity, toward doing our own thing, toward denying facts and having an altogether uncertain grip on reality, has overwhelmed our other exceptional national traits and turned us into a less developed country. (Neurotypical Blah, blah, blah! This guy is certainly in love with meaningless verbiage!) 

People see our shocking Trump moment—this post-truth, “alternative facts” moment—as some inexplicable and crazy new American phenomenon. (No, only deluded control freaks, who think that their version of how reality “ought to be” matches the supernatural template of “absolute best version” of reality, that they thoroughly believe exists, but has never existed, except in their imagination, would think this way.) But what’s happening is just the ultimate extrapolation and expression of mind-sets that have made America exceptional for its entire history.

America was created by true believers and passionate dreamers, and by hucksters and their suckers, which made America successful—but also by a people uniquely susceptible to fantasy, as epitomized by everything from Salem’s hunting witches to Joseph Smith’s creating Mormonism, from P. T. Barnum to speaking in tongues, from Hollywood to Scientology to conspiracy theories, from Walt Disney to Billy Graham to Ronald Reagan to Oprah Winfrey to Trump. In other words: Mix epic individualism with extreme religion; mix show business with everything else; let all that ferment for a few centuries; then run it through the anything-goes ’60s and the internet age. (What an idiotic string of nonsense) The result is the America we inhabit today, with reality and fantasy weirdly and dangerously blurred and commingled.

The 1960s and the Beginning of the End of Reason

I don’t regret or disapprove of many of the ways the ’60s permanently reordered American society and culture. It’s just that along with the familiar benefits, there have been unreckoned costs.

In 1962, people started referring to “hippies,” the Beatles had their first hit, Ken Kesey published One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, and the Harvard psychology lecturer Timothy Leary was handing out psilocybin and LSD to grad students. And three hours south of San Francisco, on the heavenly stretch of coastal cliffs known as Big Sur, a pair of young Stanford psychology graduates founded a school and think tank they named after a small American Indian tribe that had lived on the grounds long before. “In 1968,” one of its founding figures recalled four decades later,

“Esalen was the center of the cyclone of the youth rebellion. It was one of the central places, like Mecca for the Islamic culture. (YIKES! How typically arrogant!) Esalen was a pilgrimage center for hundreds and thousands of youth interested in some sense of transcendence, breakthrough consciousness, LSD, the sexual revolution, encounter, being sensitive, finding your body, yoga—all of these things were at first filtered into the culture through Esalen. By 1966, ’67, and ’68, Esalen was making a world impact.”

This is not overstatement. Essentially everything that became known as New Age was invented, developed, or popularized at the Esalen Institute. Esalen is a mother church of a new American religion for people who think they don’t like churches or religions but who still want to believe in the supernatural. The institute wholly reinvented psychology, medicine, and philosophy, driven by a suspicion of science and reason and an embrace of magical thinking (also: massage, hot baths, sex, and sex in hot baths). It was a headquarters for a new religion of no religion, and for “science” containing next to no science. The idea was to be radically tolerant of therapeutic approaches and understandings of reality, especially if they came from Asian traditions or from American Indian or other shamanistic traditions. Invisible energies, past lives, astral projection, whatever—the more exotic and wondrous and unfalsifiable, the better. REALLY? 

Not long before Esalen was founded, one of its co-founders, Dick Price, had suffered a mental breakdown and been involuntarily committed to a private psychiatric hospital for a year. His new institute embraced the radical notion that psychosis and other mental illnesses were labels imposed by the straight world on eccentrics and visionaries, that they were primarily tools of coercion and control. This was the big idea behind One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, of course. And within the psychiatric profession itself this idea had two influential proponents, who each published unorthodox manifestos at the beginning of the decade—R. D. Laing (The Divided Self) and Thomas Szasz (The Myth of Mental Illness). “Madness,” Laing wrote when Esalen was new, “is potentially liberation and renewal.” Esalen’s founders were big Laing fans, and the institute became a hotbed for the idea that insanity was just an alternative way of perceiving reality. Again, this notion of “listing” fragmental factoids as a way of “canceling out by magic word” any possibility of fact, truth, significant connection, importance, results, consequences, or understandable outcomes in human affairs, which might follow logical paths or patterns, demonstrates the neurotypical inability to “think” beyond infantile polar opposition of good and evil as presented in Sunday School lessons. 

These influential critiques helped make popular and respectable the idea that much of science is a sinister scheme concocted by a despotic conspiracy to oppress people. Mental illness, both Szasz and Laing said, is “a theory not a fact.” This is now the universal bottom-line argument for anyone—from creationists to climate-change deniers to anti-vaccine hysterics—who prefers to disregard science in favor of his own beliefs. How infantile: how Sunday School! Judgements that other people are “mistaken” without any acknowledgement that “my illusions and delusions” are contributing to “the mess”, or that I can possibly be the object of my irrational “superiority”. 

You know how young people always think the universe revolves around them, as if they’re the only ones who really get it? And how before their frontal lobes, the neural seat of reason and rationality, are fully wired, they can be especially prone to fantasy? (Dumb inaccurate pop-science clichés) In the ’60s, the universe cooperated: It did seem to revolve around young people, affirming their adolescent self-regard, making their fantasies of importance feel real and their fantasies of instant transformation and revolution feel plausible. Practically overnight, America turned its full attention to the young and everything they believed and imagined and wished.

If 1962 was when the decade really got going, 1969 was the year the new doctrines and their gravity were definitively cataloged by the grown-ups. Reason and rationality were over. The countercultural effusions were freaking out the old guard, including religious people who couldn’t quite see that yet another Great Awakening was under way in America, heaving up a new religion of believers who “have no option but to follow the road until they reach the Holy City … that lies beyond the technocracy … the New Jerusalem.” That line is from The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition, published three weeks after Woodstock, in the summer of 1969. Its author was Theodore Roszak, age 35, a Bay Area professor who thereby coined the word counterculture. Roszak spends 270 pages glorying in the younger generation’s “brave” rejection of expertise and “all that our culture values as ‘reason’ and ‘reality.’ ” (Note the scare quotes.) So-called experts, after all, are “on the payroll of the state and/or corporate structure.” A chapter called “The Myth of Objective Consciousness” argues that science is really just a state religion. To create “a new culture in which the non-intellective capacities … become the arbiters of the good [and] the true,” he writes, “nothing less is required than the subversion of the scientific world view, with its entrenched commitment to an egocentric and cerebral mode of consciousness.” He welcomes the “radical rejection of science and technological values.” Note the belief in the POWER OF WORDS to form, change and dictate “reality”. This irrational delusion is due to a neurotypical dependence on the principles of magic.) 

As 1969 turned to 1970, a 41-year-old Yale Law School professor was finishing his book about the new youth counterculture. Charles Reich was a former Supreme Court clerk now tenured at one of ultra-rationalism’s American headquarters. But hanging with the young people had led him to a midlife epiphany and apostasy. In 1966, he had started teaching an undergraduate seminar called “The Individual in America,” for which he assigned fiction by Kesey and Norman Mailer. He decided to spend the next summer, the Summer of Love, in Berkeley. On the road back to New Haven, he had his Pauline conversion to the kids’ values. His class at Yale became hugely popular; at its peak, 600 students were enrolled. In 1970, The Greening of America became The New York Times’ best-selling book (as well as a much-read 70-page New Yorker excerpt), and remained on the list for most of a year.

Previous two paragraphs and actually, the rest of the article:

Social blah, blah, blah which never interested the average American, but was epidemic in upper and upper middle class Americans, fixated on their pretentions to superior intellectual and social status. There was widespread denigration of “blue collar” working Americans by these classes at the time; it continues today.  

Messages from the Unconscious / Yes, it happens

“There is no way that as a human being, you won’t disturb the Earth.”

I have related in previous posts, how my “mind works” (and everyone’s does, actually) but you have to listen for the products of the unconscious, in order to make them conscious. I enjoy sleep; it’s an active state of rest, refreshment and dreams. Powerful thinking goes on; a type of thinking much older than conscious verbal thought. A direct link to collective memory – evolutionary memory. A vast reservoir that is encoded along with all the myriad instructions that build a human body within a woman’s body – and after birth must be nurtured in order to grow the infant into an adult form. We call the code DNA, but then ignore that the code is useless unless it finds healthy expression as a living creature, which is not an automatic guaranteed outcome.  

Traditional so-called primitive cultures keep the unconscious conduit open; sometimes through initiation rituals and physical breakdown of the conscious / unconscious barrier or by use of psychoactive concoctions or physical stress; through dream imagery interpretation and the activities of shamans, who act as both guides and “librarians” -individuals, who thanks to their personality – brain type, can search the collective memory banks to “correct” whatever ails you or the community. The source of “trouble” is held to be a deviation from paths and patterns worked out by natural processes – often due to intentional human interference.  

If I’m lucky, a phrase or idea may linger from the night’s brain activity: it may become a stimulus for word-based thinking, as if a basin of water had been left to fill overnight, and that on waking a particular phrase allows the stored up potential of unconscious activity to be free to “do work” in the waking world. Geologic processes and events sometimes supply the images for this dynamic relationship between what modern social people believe to be a “good” realm of conscious social word-thought and the “evil” realm of unconscious “trash and sewerage” – a tragic religious-psychiatric condemnation that has been imposed on a healthy system of human sensory experience, visual processing and creativity directed toward a goal of survival and reproduction of our specific “version” of animal life.

Unconscious processing is a powerful legacy of animal evolution that we have relegated to a sewer system, a septic tank, a dark region of monsters, dreadful impulses and dangers.

Myths from many cultures include Hell, the underworld, limbo or an after life in their scheme of things; some describe “that place” as a source of knowledge that is perilous to enter, but worth it for what can be found there. The unconscious experience is “outside time” and therefore seen as a place of reliable prophecy; an attractive lure to those modern humans who desire to manipulate, dominate and control man and nature – hence the relentless and blinding quest for “magic” as the means to “cheat” the Laws of Nature. But it is the unconscious content of the human animal that composes the owner’s manual for “How to Operate and Maintain a Bipedal Ape”.

We can see that during the long the course of the “evolution” of bipedal apes, what we call “unconscious processes” – mainly visual thinking, sensory thinking, acquisition of energy and interaction with the environment, and the task of growing and maintaining an animal body, were simply taken care of by the brain – and still are. Our pejorative use of the words “instinct and instinctual” knowledge and functions as something inferior, which “we” have left behind, is a nonsensical conclusion; an illusion produced  by the supposedly “superior” (and demonstrably less intelligent) “conscious verbal function” that is embraced, cultivated and worshipped by modern humans as a “God”.

Why would I state that the “unconscious” animal brain is more intelligent than the modern verbal function as a guidance system for human survival?

As an Asperger who relies on the unconscious as the “go to” source for patterns, systems, connections, networks and explanations for “how the universe works” it is obvious that nature itself provides the “master templates” for creating and implementing technological invention and innovation. Homo sapiens has “discovered” these templates (Laws of Physics) by means of mathematics, and the nature of these “languages of physical reality” remains a bit mysterious.

The problem arises with the assumption that the manifestation of technical ideas and products as solutions to the painful drudgery of manual labor is believed to confer intelligence of a truly different type: Wisdom – the ability to “forecast” consequences that potentially result from one’s actions, and the ability to modify present action accordingly. This is an almost impossible task for the human brain; it’s why we invent or seek out Big Parental Figures; employ statistical magic and other contrived nonsense, and “divine the future” in archaic religious texts, simultaneously, without distinction to common sense; we supply our own superstitious rules and clumsy structures to compensate for our utter lack of critical foresight and judgement.

Several notions help clarify this predicament.

1. “Nature” has done the work of “foresight” for us: we have access to knowledge stored in “instinct / unconscious content” and in the conscious apprehension of “how the environment works” through trial and error manipulation of real objects and materials and more recently by means of “abstract codes” and computing power by which we believe we can decipher “the magic universe” of human childhood.

That is, foresight is not “located” in seeing the “future” (which doesn’t exist in concrete form ) but by understanding the “eternal present”. These patterns are not mystical, magical or supernatural.

2. The deceptive mirage of “word thinking” goes unrecognized. The lure of being freed from the Laws of Nature is great! Word thinking is not “tied to” actual reality – it’s usefulness and value is in making propositions that owe no allegiance to the limits and boundaries of the “real world”. Word language CAN lead to rapid communication of information and dissemination of  useful concepts, but! There is no guarantee that this “information” is accurate – most ideas are created to provide for the motivation and justification of time and energy being expended in the pursuit of inflicting injury and suffering on other humans, and the control/exploitation of resources, plants,  animals and other life forms. This activity will never produce A Happy Ending. 

In fact, word thinking leads to the illusion of the reality and primacy of a supernatural domain, in which magic is the operating system. Predatory humans give themselves permission to dominate the environment via verbal constructs, whose origin is assigned to, and justified by, this imaginary supernatural realm. Social dominance  “for personal gain and pleasure” does not correspond to the “dominant role” in nature, which comes with great risk and responsibility and heavy consequences for the dominant individual. In humans, the goal in attaining dominance is a “free ride” on the backs of inferior beings. 

3. Oh boy! Screw nature: I’m in control! Bring on the spells, rituals, magic symbols, secret handshakes, rattles and drums; the abject obedience of “lesser beings” to my dictates. This is where social humans are today: technically powerful, abysmally ignorant of the consequences of our actions. We have cut ourselves off from access to the user’s manual that is included free with every brain.

4. Instead, we have created a delusional and self-destructive hatred and fear of a vital evolutionary legacy; unconscious thinking has been selected and slandered by certain predatory humans as the “cause” of pathologic behavior: mental illness, violence, depravity, abuse, “disobedience to social control” and to the “supernatural regime” of human social reality, when in fact, much of human “bad behavior” can be traced directly to the steeply hierarchical structures that dominate modern humans. From the top down (from tyrants, Pharaohs and other psycho-sociopaths, to the ranks of those who are their “prey”) it is the distortion of manmade supernatural “order” as the original and absolute truth of human existence that prevents the healthy growth and sanity of actual human beings. Much behavior that is destructive, abusive, cruel and irrational on the part of Homo sapiens is inevitable, given the abnormal, destructive and “killer” stresses built into modern social environments.

Chris Packham Videos / Personal Account Adult Asperger – Excellent

Familiar, and yet different! Fascinating to see how the same “impulses” play out in another Asperger… Overwhelmingly sad at points … love and beauty. That different perception of time. Would I want to be “cured”? Never. 

My salvation was having an Asperger father, who loved me like Chris loved his Kestral. 

ABA child abuse. An American travesty: rationalized torture. Eugenics.  

Employment of ASD people, Silicon Valley 

LOSS. The unbearable.   

Sunday Culture / Art is Smart “The Smile” was forbidden

Social rules are so much fun: 

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The Serious and the Smirk: The Smile in Portraiture

Antonello da Messina Portrait of a Man Oil on panel, 12-14 x 9-5/8 in (31x 24.5 cm) Museo della Fondazione Culturale Mandralisca, Cefalu (Palermo)

Antonello da Messina’s Portrait of a Man (ca.1475)

Why do we so seldom see people smiling in painted portraits? Nicholas Jeeves explores the history of the smile through the ages of portraiture, from Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa to Alexander Gardner’s photographs of Abraham Lincoln.

Smiling also has a large number of discrete cultural and historical significances, few of them in line with our modern perceptions of it being a physical signal of warmth, enjoyment, or indeed of happiness. (So much for the contention in American psychology that “normality” is an absolutist cross-culture scientific “truth”.)  

By the 17th century in Europe it was a well-established fact that the only people who smiled broadly, in life and in art, were the poor, the lewd, the drunk, the innocent, and the entertainment – some of whom we’ll visit later. Showing the teeth was for the upper classes a more-or-less formal breach of etiquette. St. Jean-Baptiste De La Salle, in The Rules of Christian Decorum and Civility of 1703, wrote:

There are some people who raise their upper lip so high… that their teeth are almost entirely visible. This is entirely contradictory to decorum, which forbids you to allow your teeth to be uncovered, since nature gave us lips to conceal them.

Thus the critical point: should a painter have persuaded his sitter to smile, and chosen to paint it, it would immediately radicalise the portrait, precisely because it was so unusual and so undesirable. Suddenly the picture would be ‘about’ the open smile, and this is almost never what an artist, or a paying subject, wanted.

Continued: http://publicdomainreview.org Wonderful Site!!

Speaking of teeth: The American “trend” is to display an impressively aggressive mouthful of fake teeth – a social “weapon” that one can purchase, just like a gun.

U.S. Culture: Idealized women are those with highly neotenic child faces, but with aggressive predatory chompers….What does this mean???? 

 

Depression? / A Social Epidemic

The topic of Depression has been showing up quite a bit on sites that I frequent, and I realized that I don’t actually know much about Clinical Depression. I don’t find the description below to be very specific or medical. It’s self-diagnosis, isn’t it? You’re depressed if you think you are – the symptoms and criteria are offered to the patient to choose from; not an objective process. Five of these symptoms (why 5?) have to last for two weeks (why two weeks?) What if it’s not two weeks, but 13 days? Are you then not depressed? This seems a very short duration from what people with depression say – that it’s chronic.

There is an admonishment used to restrain this type of “bogus” quantification: Only  things that can be counted can be counted.  Making up” numbers (like 5 symptoms, 2 weeks) does not change the arbitrary social basis of diagnosis; false quantification does not make a process “science”.

Call me a picky Asperger, but what is the cause?     Clinical Depression, if it’s real, must have cause(s).

Why bother with a charade of diagnosis? Just have people show up, say, “I’m depressed,” and dish out the prescriptions.  

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From Mayo Clinic Online: Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics.

What does the term “clinical depression” mean?

Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D.

Depression ranges in seriousness from mild, temporary episodes of sadness to severe, persistent depression. Clinical depression is the more severe form of depression, also known as major depression or major depressive disorder. It isn’t the same as depression caused by a loss, such as the death of a loved one, or a medical condition, such as a thyroid disorder.

To be diagnosed with clinical depression, you must meet the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association. This manual is used by mental health providers to diagnose mental conditions and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. Are insurance companies co-writing the DSM, that is,  practicing medicine without a license? How do pharmaceutical companies influence the choice of which and how much medication is prescribed?  The fact is, insurance industry representatives do “contribute” to what appears in the DSM.

For clinical depression, you must have five or more of the following symptoms over a two-week period, most of the day, nearly every day. At least one of the symptoms must be either a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure. Signs and symptoms may include:

Depressed mood, such as feeling sad, empty or tearful (in children and teens, depressed mood can appear as constant irritability) (What teenager isn’t sad, empty, tearful or irritable at times?)

Significantly reduced interest or feeling no pleasure in all or most activities (Isn’t that the reality of  people at the bottom of the American Social Pyramid in the 21st C.? Drug addiction, violence, poverty and crime would likely both induce and arise from depression.)

Significant weight loss when not dieting, weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite (in children, failure to gain weight as expected) (Wow! that covers just about anyone!)

Insomnia or increased desire to sleep (Here we go again – any behavior on either side of an imaginary “normal.” In the U.S. we are bombarded daily by the message that even “normal” people have a sleep disorder. I’m not downplaying the absolute need for quality sleep. And how does one get adequate sleep time working more than one job, just to survive? )

Either restlessness or slowed behavior that can be observed by others (hearsay evidence; subjective.)

Fatigue or loss of energy (subjective; millions of Americans are exhausted by the stress and insecurity of chaotic social demands)

Feelings of worthlessness, or excessive or inappropriate guilt (socially induced symptoms)

Trouble making decisions, or trouble thinking or concentrating (Wow! I keep hoping for objective, provable symptoms, but it’s I guess they don’t exist!) 

Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or a suicide attempt (Look no farther than people who have been discarded by society: ex-military, the homeless, Native American young people, and the elderly.  

Your symptoms must be severe enough to cause noticeable problems in relationships with others or in day-to-day activities, such as work, school or social activities. Symptoms may be based on your own feelings or on the observations of someone else. (Wow! How scientific is that? It’s clear that clinical depression is a SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS, created by stressful conditions built into the social environment. Unhealthy social conditions of poverty, violence, financial distress, broken families, tyrannical bosses and demeaning work place conditions, do create physical changes and disease in the human animal, but “pills” simply mask the pain; they offer no cure for a toxic society that values profit over people; it is the “medico-pharma” greed that has created massive opioid addiction in the U.S.) 

Clinical depression can affect people of any age, including children. However, clinical depression symptoms, even if severe, usually improve with psychological counseling, antidepressant medications or a combination of the two. (Vague, relative, subjective, with no proof of efficacy and no money back guarantee!)  It’s all about $$$$$$$$.

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For more from the NIH / National Institutes of Health:

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml

Major Depression (Is this clinical depression, or not?)

Definitions

Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. For some individuals, major depression can result in severe impairments that interfere with or limit one’s ability to carry out major life activities.

Additional information can be found on the NIMH Health Topics page on Depression.

The past year prevalence data presented here for major depressive episode are from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The NSDUH study definition of major depressive episode is based mainly on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV):

  • A period of two weeks or longer during which there is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure, and at least four other symptoms that reflect a change in functioning, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, self-image or recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
  • Unlike the definition in the DSM-IV, no exclusions were made for a major depressive episode caused by medical illness, bereavement, or substance use disorders.

Confused? What does all this incoherent “activity” on the part of American industry, institutions and government agencies amount to? Fabulous profits for corporations. 

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It is important to understand that not only do we do horribly abuse animals, we are animals, and our American social environment is the equivalent of zoos, circuses and research labs for human animals. 

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Under pressure from a state court, California is building a psychiatric care unit at San Quentin prison in order to provide long-term mental health care for death row inmates. If you think about it, it's slightly ironic.

How sick is this? It’s cruel, insane and socially typical thinking.