Links / U.S. Chemical – Biological Weapons Hypocrisy

One of the largest human experiments in history’ was conducted on unsuspecting residents of San Francisco http://www.businessinsider.com/the-military-tested-bacterial-weapons-in-san-francisco-2015-7

Veterans Used In Secret Experiments Sue Military For Answers (Mustard Gas) http://www.npr.org/2015/09/051437555125/veterans-used-in-secret-experiments-sue-military-for-answers

DDT: A Review of Scientific and Economic Aspects of the Decision to ban its use as a pesticide https://books.google.com/books?id=K9XjbKUfYk8C United States. Environmental Protection Agency, ‎United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations– 1975 – ‎DDT (Insecticide)

4 decades after war ended, Agent Orange still ravaging Vietnamese http://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/world/article24751351.html

Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2004 Oct; 17(4): 400–406. Stefan Riedel, MD, PhDcorresponding author1 1From the Department of Pathology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

AND From GPF Global Policy Forum:

US Intelligence Helps Saddam’s Party Seize Power in 1963 | US and British Support for Saddam in the 1970s and 1980s

Saddam Key in Early CIA Plot (April 10, 2003)

According to former US intelligence officials and diplomats, the CIA’s relationship with Saddam Hussein dates back to 1959, when he was part of a CIA-authorized six-man squad that attempted to assassinate Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim. (United Press International)

A Tyrant Forty Years in the Making (March 14, 2003)

Roger Morris writes of the “regime change” carried out by the CIA in Iraq forty years ago. Among the CIA’s actions were attempted political assassinations and the handing over of a list of suspected communists and leftists that led to the deaths of thousands of Iraqis at the hands of Saddam Hussein’s Ba’ath Party. (New York Times)

 

CIA Lists Provide Basis for Iraqi Bloodbath

In this excerpt from his classic study of Iraqi politics, Hanna Batatu discusses how the Ba`ath Party seized power for the first time in a military coup in February 1963. He speaks of lists, provided by US intelligence, that enabled the party to hunt down its enemies, particularly the Communists, in a terrible bloodletting.

 

The Riegle Report (1994)

This report by the Senate Banking Committee analyzes the US’s exports of warfare-related goods to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Gulf War. The report concludes that the US provided Iraq “with ‘dual-use’ licensed materials which assisted in the development of Iraqi chemical, biological and missile-system programs.” (Gulflink)

Officers Say US Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas (August 18, 2002)

According to senior military officials, a covert program carried out during the Reagan Administration provided Iraq with critical battle planning assistance at a time when US intelligence agencies knew that Iraqi commanders would employ chemical weapons against Iran. (New York Times)

Did Saddam Die for Our Sins? (January 9, 2007)

The US-backed Iraq Tribunal sentenced Saddam Hussein to death for his role in the 1982 massacre of nearly 150 Shiites in Dujail, Iraq. But the same court has dropped all charges against Hussein, post mortem, for the killing of 180,000 Kurds during the 1980s – crimes committed with Western complicity. The author of this TomPaine piece concludes that if the tribunal does not look into US and British involvement in the genocide case, it will fail “to educate the world about Saddam and his barbarous regime.”

 

This Was a Guilty Verdict on America as Well (November 6, 2006)

The US-backed Iraq Special Tribunal sentenced the country’s former ruler and “one-time [US] ally” Saddam Hussein to death by hanging – a verdict which came as no surprise to many. The court sought to bring Saddam to justice for crimes against humanity, but failed to acknowledge past US and British administrations’ roles in facilitating these crimes. For decades, Washington provided economic and military support – including chemical weapons – to Saddam’s regime. Therefore, in light of the court’s ruling and its positive reception in Washington, the author of this Independent opinion piece asks, “Have ever justice and hypocrisy been so obscenely joined?”

 

The True Iraq Appeasers (August 31, 2006)

US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld has compared critics of the Bush administration’s policy in Iraq to those who appeased Adolf Hitler. The author of this Boston Globe article points out the hypocrisy of such a statement, noting the arming and financing of Saddam Hussein by the Reagan and first Bush administrations. As the article shows, many of the planners of the 2003 Iraq war supported Hussein in the 1980s during his ruthless and genocidal dictatorship.

 

Morality in Iraq, Then and Now (August 27, 2006)

This Washington Post opinion piece criticizes the historically inconsistent US policy towards Iraq. The author tracks US involvement in Iraq from the 1970s up until the trial of the country’s former leader Saddam Hussein, which began in 2005. Although the US helped to set up the Special Iraq Tribunal, contributing to the exposure of some of these crimes, the author warns against overlooking US complicity with the Hussein regime.

US Military Assistance to Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq War (April 20, 2006)

This material highlights the various military, intelligence, and financial assistance given to Saddam’s regime by the US. In 1986, former Vice President George H.W. Bush traveled to the Middle East, repeatedly encouraging Saddam to step up Iraq’s bombing campaign against Iran. In addition, the US supplied Saddam with several big orders of helicopters and provoked a diversionary engagement with the Iranian navy in coordination with a major Iraqi offensive. (Global Policy Forum)

 

Saddam Hussein Trial: US-Iraq Military and Economic Relations (October 20, 2005)

Saddam Hussein’s trial has prompted discussions about US economic and military support to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War. This bibliography offers a list of sources addressing US policy towards Iraq from 1979 to 1990. (Global Policy Forum)

 

Rumsfeld Visited Baghdad in 1984 to Reassure Iraqis, Documents Show (December 19, 2003)

While the US publicly maintained neutrality during the Iran-Iraq war, it privately attempted to forge a better relationship with the government of Saddam Hussein. This policy did not shift when Iraq used chemical weapons against Iran. (Washington Post)

 

Saddam’s Arrest Raises Troubling Questions (December 2003)

For decades Washington supported the regime of Saddam Hussein. US officials responsible for such policies could themselves be guilty of war crimes and might face allegations in an international tribunal. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Crude Vision: How Oil Interests Obscured US Government Focus on Chemical Weapons Use by Saddam Hussein (March 24, 2003)

This report, by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network, investigates the “revolving door” between the Bechtel Group and the Reagan administration that drove US policy towards Iraq in the 1980s. The authors argue that many of the same actors are back today, justifying military action against Iraq and waiting to reap the benefits of post-war reconstruction.

Britain’s Dirty Secret (March 6, 2003)

Britain secretly assisted in building a chemical plant in Iraq despite being fully aware that Saddam Hussein gassed Iranian troops in the 1980s. The warning about possibilities to make chemical weapons was dismissed by Paul Channon, British trade minister at that time, stating abandoning the project “would do our other trade prospects in Iraq no good.” (Guardian)

Shaking Hands with Saddam Hussein: The US Tilts Toward Iraq, 1980-1984 (February 25, 2003)

This extensive report from the National Security Archive uses declassified US documents to illustrate the nature of US involvement in Iraqi affairs under the administration of President Ronald Reagan.

America Didn’t Seem to Mind Poison Gas (January 17, 2003)

As part of his call for regime change in Iraq, George W. Bush has accused Saddam Hussein of using poison gas against his own people. However, in 1988 the US worked to prevent the international community from condemning Iraq’s chemical attack against the Kurdish village of Halabja, instead attempting to place part of the blame on Iran. (International Herald Tribune)

Rumsfeld “Offered Help to Saddam” (December 31, 2002)

As President Reagan’s Middle East envoy in the early 80s, current US Secretary of Defense and leading Bush administration hawk, Donald Rumsfeld, offered support to Saddam Hussein during the Iraq-Iran conflict with knowledge that the Iraqis were using chemical weapons. (Guardian)

 

US Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup (December 30, 2002)

This Washington Post article discusses the US role in the military buildup of Iraq preceeding the Gulf War. The administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush authorized the sale of poisonous chemicals and deadly biological viruses such as anthrax and bubonic plague.

 

Iraq and Poison Gas (August 28, 2002)

The US has always known about Baghdad’s deployment of chemical weapons and their use against his own people, especially during the Iran-Iraq War. “What did the US government do about it then? Nothing,” reports The Nation, “until ‘gassing his own people’ became a catchy slogan to demonize Saddam.”

Iraq Uses Techniques in Spying Against its Former Tutor, the US (February 5, 1991)

This 1991 article discusses the deep intelligence link between the US and Iraq in the 1980s, detailing the intelligence assistance that the US provided to Saddam Hussein during the Iran-Iraq war. (Philadelphia Inquirer)

Excerpts From Iraqi Document on Meeting with US Envoy (September 22, 1990)

Former US Ambassador to Iraq Ms. April Glaspie met with Saddam Hussein on July 25 1990, only 8 days before he invaded Kuwait. According to this excerpt from a transcript of their meeting, the two talked about oil prices, how to improve US-Iraq relations, and how the US has “no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait.” (New York Times)

And so much more: How does the U.S. dare take a “Holier than Thou” attitude toward the rest of the world’s nations?

 

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I’ve been doing more reading than writing the past few weeks due to my annual “paralyzed until spring” episode. Reading helps me to forget winter, especially when it is a boring winter like this year.

I pick up on themes of interest such as, Why is the study of humans becoming “human” so uneven, fragmented, contentious, strung out between study disciplines, and unbelievably BORING? It’s unimaginable that the trek from ape to hominid to homo and from Africa to the greater world, beset by ice ages, deserts, mountain ranges and oceans could have been as mind-numbingly dull as “scientists” would have us believe.

Thousand upon thousands of years of our ancestors “negotiating” social contracts, devising mating schemes, inventing wealth transfer, outsourcing sex and labor, consolidating rules of status and behavior, measuring boundaries of trade and travel, sharing taboos, beans, and pieces of string – a living death of social trivia.

Our ancestors, as catalogued by scientists, did not go extinct… they threw themselves off the closest cliff for lack of stimulating adventure.

These “data driven” lives of early humans as concocted by archaeologists and anthropologists, who dutifully count burnt seeds, crockery fragments and the contents of poop, are projecting their own miserable lives onto generations of humans who are dead and can’t complain about being slandered, diminished, and reduced to plots, graphs and statistically meaningless numbers.

Oh yes –  my point is that modern social humans honestly believe that verbal language “made us superior” by establishing gossip, and bickering over nonsense, as a high social art, but neurotypicals are overlooking the gorilla in the rom: communication is rampant in Nature; in plants, animals and even in bacteria and viruses.

A cartoon that nicely captures the absurdity of reductionist concepts of life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A comment about human boredom / Dull Science

CARTA Video / Origin Genus Homo – History of Confusion

This discussion makes my Asperger brain go into a state of utter bafflement and disbelief, that this BLAH, BLAH, BLAH is believed to be about the evolution of actual “creatures” in nature.

The presentations are about the “evolution” of a flawed intellectual system that does not remotely address or explain “how the real world works”. There is no “Homo genus” in the real world – only specific living creatures coping with actual physical environments. How we organize our “ideas” about reality, is not reality. This lack of awareness by Western intellectuals of their “supernatural” imposition of cultural ideas onto reality is a huge flaw. 

What does all this “quibbling” over a socially-motivated “I’m right, you’re wrong” argument, which is the legacy of western academic bad habits, have to do with nature?

Trying to “arrange” scant fossils, scant concrete evidence, oodles of bad reconstructions and irresponsible speculation into a pre-conceived and ill-conceived intellectual framework is NONSENSE.

Evolution is about reproduction; the generation by individuals, of offspring, successfully adapted to changes in the environment – not about what a few random (scattered across time and space), poorly preserved, fragmentary skeletal remains “look like” when cobbled together into “fanciful” creatures, configured by a history of misinterpretation.

It’s this persistent, and fatal-to-knowledge, Western “religious conceit” that there is a supernatural domain, in which an absolute model of the universe, and everything in it, is pre-determined and pre-existing; the very idea of an evolving reality is “dead on arrival” in the Western academic brain. Discovery of reality is denied; intellectual contraptions are kept “alive” by transparently inadequate fixes of archaic ideas – a monstrosity is held up as scientifically valid.

Full text book / Child… Psychology Asperger-Frith / Internet Archive

UPDATE: see also:

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2017/03/09/aspergers-1944-paper-in-english-frith-translation/

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2017/03/10/aspergers-1944-paper-in-english-part-three/

https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2017/03/11/aspergers-1944-paper-in-english-part-four-harros-case/

______________________________________________________________________________________________

Search for Hans Asperger’s original 1944 paper in English: It seems that for some reason there is not a “satisfactory” English version readily available. (Comments by other people searching for it on the Internet) I did find the full text of Child and Adolescent Psychology available at Internet Archive (https://archive.org – I’m finding it impossible to get a working link to this page) This version is dated 2008.

I just began reading the text so “no comment” at this time. WHAT? No comment – well one small note on the sentence below: “They can be highly intelligent and reminiscent of eccentrics with their unusual interests, special skills and unworldliness. ” Perhaps the discussion of pathology could end right here?  We are “eccentric” in the view of society; sure – we have our “ways of perceiving and processing the environment” (which in individual “Aspergers” are actually quite diverse) Certain behavior “goes along with” having a distinct HYPOSOCIAL personality. Certain behaviors “go along with” having a HYPERSOCIAL personality. So what?

I’m assuming unworldliness in this case is intended to be (Mirriam Webster): the quality or state of being simple and sincere. (A sure sign of pathology in a social context) Synonymsartlessness, greenness, guilelessness, ingenuousness, innocence, naiveness, naivety (also naïvety) [chiefly British], naturalness, simplemindedness, simpleness, simplicity, unsophistication, naïveté, viridity

INTRO:

Is Asperger syndrome a syndrome in its own right or is it a form of autism? Sufferers from the syndrome are like autistic individuals in that they show the same kind of
impairments from early childhood; yet they are unlike them in being far more
verbally articulate and socially adapted. They can be highly intelligent and remini-
scent of eccentrics with their unusual interests, special skills and unworldliness.

In this volume several of the major experts in the field discuss the diagnostic
criteria of the syndrome, named after Hans Asperger who first described the
condition in the 1940s, and illustrate their views with case studies drawn from their
clinical practice. These clinical studies are complemented by personal accounts and
placed in a new theoretical framework. Significantly, Uta Frith provides the first
English translation of Asperger’s paper: his work has long been neglected, but his
insights reflect a very modern awareness of the broad continuum of autistic
disorders. They also provide surprisingly practical suggestions on the education and
management of autistic children.

Current opinion on Asperger syndrome and its relationship to autism is fraught
with disagreement and hampered by ignorance. This book gives the first coherent
account of Asperger syndrome as a distinct variant of autism and will undoubtedly
arouse a good deal of debate.

Autism and Asperger syndrome Hans Asperger. From the collection of Dr Maria Asperger-Felder

Autism and Asperger syndrome Edited by Uta Frith MRC Cognitive Development Unit,  London

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
http://www.cambridge.org

Information on this title:www.cambridge. org/9780521386081
© Cambridge University Press 1991 First published 1991
Nineteenth printing 2008

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
isbn 978-0-521-38608-1 paperback

 

 

Online “degrees” in Psychology / No Science (or much else) required

Why you should ALWAYS ask a prospective “helping, fixing, caring” industry service person about their education. The “diploma” on the wall (including a PhD) may simply be religious proselytizing hiding behind a “psychology practice” front. How legitimate is a “Human Behavior” degree that is “granted by” people who reject science, and especially, evolution?
I’m not “picking on” this education corporation – they are but one example of the shady world of online degree offerings that Too often “rip off” students who end up with incredible debt and without a credible degree.

Regent University (Online Degrees)

“Christian Leadership to Change the World”

 

Psychology & Counseling

Use your Christian worldview to promote human welfare with a focus on service to both the church and community. Through our psychology programs, students learn to identify the philosophical issues within this discipline so they can interpret scientific research from a Christian perspective. Expand your opportunities for service to others through a career in psychology and counseling.

Regent offers programs both on campus in Virginia Beach and in an online format for flexibility and convenience. Choose from the programs below to learn more.

Associate in Arts in · Psychology

Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Clinical & Counseling Psychology

Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling and Human Services and       General Psychology – Doctoral Preparation and Marriage, Couple & Family Counseling and School Counseling and Pastoral Counseling and General Psychology

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

Doctor in Philosophy in Counseling & Psychological Studies and Counselor Education & Supervision

Let’s look at these “degree” offerings:

The Associate of Arts in Psychology is an online or on-campus degree that will open the door to an understanding of the human mind and help position you for a meaningful career. You will acquire knowledge, delivered from a Christian perspective, of key concepts and theories of psychology, as well as an understanding of principles that apply to personal, social and organizational issues, spanning across nations and cultures. You will also learn from top-notch, active professional clinicians, researchers and educators who are ready to mentor you.

·        Develop listening skills and learn how to ask engaging questions in the counseling setting.

·        Discover how behavior and mental processes affect personal and spiritual development.

·        Understand how to conduct research and use data to support various theories in psychology and counseling. Does this “Assoc. of Arts” program qualify someone to be a researcher? If so, this may explain why so much “psych research” is nonsense. 

Career Opportunities:

·        Psychiatric Nursing Assistant or Orderly

·        Youth Counselor

·        Case Technician

·        Human Service Assistant

·        Home Care Aide

·        Addiction Rehabilitation Assistant

And how about a Master’s?

The Master of Arts in School Counseling is an online or on-campus degree that will prepare you for a successful career in school counseling. You will be equipped through our VDOE-approved and CACREP-accredited program to make a difference in the lives of students. Leave your mark on future world changers through the integration of effective techniques and a biblical foundation. So much for separation of “church and state” in public schools!

·        Learn the skills needed to meet the Virginia requirements for a career in professional counseling within the K-12 public school system.

·        Study the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and learn to advocate for the good of students, personally, educationally and socially.

·        Benefit from a supervised clinical experience in community agency and school settings. Legitimate “residency” requirement?

·        Be poised for the pursuit of doctoral degrees including the Ph.D. in Counselor Education & Supervision. We’ll make sure you get a “diploma” for a whopping big price $$$$$, but don’t expect “real” universities to accept an MA from us as legitimate when applying for one of their doctoral programs)

Career Opportunities:

·        K-12 School Counselor This “job” comes with a lot of power over your child’s education and future. This person can “judge” your child’s behavior to be abnormal, pathological or even criminal and “refer” him or her to “treatment” programs or authorities. Is this being done by a “professional” or by a religious advocate?  

CACREP accredited in accordance with the Commonwealth of Virginia and most other states; be sure to check your state’s requirements. Just find a state with ‘low standards’ in which to apply for jobs

Before you begin your journey to licensure with us, please click here to confirm if the program you are interested in complies with your state’s licensure requirements or complies with the requirements of the state in which you intend to work. How many students fail to do this, until after they’ve spent thousands of dollars in tuition and fees, only to discover that they don’t qualify for a “license”?

And what about that PhD?

The Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education & Supervision is an online degree, with residency requirements, that will set you apart in the field of counseling for expert professional and scholarly work. This program, which uniquely integrates science and faith, is designed for currently licensed counselors, who will complete an internship and dissertation, as their knowledge base of the counseling profession grows in an environment of exceptional learning. You will evidence new ideas through ground-breaking research and the opportunity to present an original dissertation.

·        Understand the individual in their process of growth, development and passage through life stages.

·        Pursue your greatest passion and break new ground in the field of counseling through the planning and presentation of your dissertation.

·        Enjoy faculty mentoring and hands-on training in areas such as principles and practices of counseling; group work; ethical and legal considerations; and the role of multicultural competencies, in counselor education.

WOW! Oversell? You bet, plus “weasel exemptions” as to what a student actually “gets” from the program – Actually, it doesn’t matter! A pay raise from the school district is the goal for obtaining a PhD diploma. 

Career Opportunities:

·        Licensed Professional Counselor

·        University Faculty/Leadership

·        Clinical Practitioner

·        Director of Mental Health Services Agency/Nonprofit

·        Leadership in School Counseling and Supervision

·        Administrator in Mental Health Agencies/Schools

·        Researcher/Writer

CACREP accredited in accordance with the Commonwealth of Virginia and most other states; be sure to check your state’s requirements.

 

 

Psychological measurements / use and misuse

From http://www.us.elsevier.com Psychological measurements: their uses and misuses (PDF)

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“The words ‘test’ and ‘measurement,’ as used in psychology, are misleading because of the implied similarity to scientific measurements and medical tests. Conventional psychological testing is quite different from scientific measurements in the natural sciences.”

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“There are no units of <psychological> measurement and no true zeros. Whatever psychological measurement is, it is not scientific measurement as defined in the natural sciences… This applies to the majority of psychological concepts and variables,” says Paul Kline, psychometric theorist.

“…it is often mistakenly believed that psychological tests are ‘objective’, meaning that their findings and scores reflect an outside existence (as opposed to being subjective) and are real or at least approximate something close to it…”

“The term <objectivity> in psychology refers to the standard ways in which <the tests> are administered, recorded and interpreted… Psychological tests, then, are not tests of mental structures or entities as are physical tests , neither are they objective in terms of real or physical existence – they are tests of psychological constructs…”

___________________________________________________________________________________________
And yet, psychologists actively promote the false presentation of psychological concepts as belonging to scientific reality. We must ask, how many lives have been negatively impacted by this misrepresentation?

IT’S MAGIC, RELIGION, SOCIAL ENGINEERING, BUT NOT SCIENCE.

 

Female pelvis childbearing years / U. Zurich (Implications Neoteny)

See also: https://aspergerhuman.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/the-female-human-pelvis-spectrum/

April 25, 2016 / Source: University of Zurich

Summary:
Mother Nature has the answer: With the onset of puberty, the female pelvis expands; with the onset of menopause, it contracts again. In contrast, the male pelvis remains on the same developmental trajectory throughout a lifetime. The striking results of this study suggest that the morphology of the female pelvis is influenced by hormonal changes in puberty and during menopause.
Women have wider hips than men because their pelves must allow for the birth of large-brained babies. Nevertheless, many female pelves are still not wide enough, which can result in difficult births. Traditionally, the human pelvis has been considered an evolutionary compromise between birthing and walking upright; a wider pelvis would compromise efficient bipedal locomotion. But this hypothesis has now been called into question: According to new studies, wide hips do not reduce locomotor efficiency.
A team of researchers led by Marcia Ponce de León at the Anthropological Institute of the University of Zurich has gained new insights. Using computed tomographic data, they tracked pelvic development from birth to old age and found that until puberty, male and female pelves are similar in width. With the onset of puberty, the male pelvis remains on the same developmental trajectory, while the female pelvis develops in an entirely new direction, becoming wider and reaching its full width around the age of 25-30 years. From the age of 40 onward, the female pelvis then begins to narrow again.
Comment: Implications for neoteny; (becoming sexually mature in a juvenile stage of body development) Modern female puberty occurs between 9 – 13 years of age, but actual optimal adult pelvic development occurs at 25-30 years of age; the developmental displacement is significant and indicates precocious fertility vs. adult development. That is, a modern female can become pregnant well before her pelvis is mature and ready to carry a pregnancy to term and experience natural childbirth. Many modern females are growing and delivering infants with a “male-type” pelvis; premature births and caesarian delivery have increased significantly. Is another high risk condition in pregnancy – obesity – also a factor in neoteny? 
 

Difficult Childbirths Are Not an Evolutionary Problem

The researchers hypothesize that these processes are steered by changes in hormone levels. With the onset of puberty, estrogen concentration reaches high levels, which are maintained until menopause. High estrogen levels thus maintain high fertility and also guarantee that the female pelvis develops and maintains its obstetrically most favorable form. “This implies that the female body can modulate its pelvic dimensions ‘on demand’, and is not dependent on genetically fixed developmental programs,” explains Ponce de León. At the same time, hormone levels also depend on environmental and nutritional factors. “This suggests that difficult childbirths are not necessarily an evolutionary mis-step, but more a question of the balance between the hormones and the external factors influencing the size of the birth canal and the prenatal development of the child.”

But why does the female pelvis contract again with the onset of menopause? The researchers assume that a narrow pelvis is better suited to stabilizing the pelvic floor and thus to withstanding the high pressures that are generated in the abdomen during bipedal walking. As such, men and women become more similar from the age of 40 — at least as far as their pelves are concerned.


Story Source: Materials provided by University of Zurich

 


Journal Reference:

  1. Alik Huseynov, Christoph P. E. Zollikofer, Walter Coudyzer, Dominic Gascho, Christian Kellenberger, Ricarda Hinzpeter, and Marcia S. Ponce de León. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis. PNAS, April 2016 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1517085113

Development of the female and male pelvis from birth to old age.

Credit: MorphoLab, Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich

See also:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688883/ (Neanderthal) 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4305164/ (Evo human pelvis)

Cranial Deformation / Is it Benign?

This is one of those topics that is ignored, except by “ancient alien” believers: Why? The general opinion is that skull deformation has no effect on brain function. Where did this idea originate? There is abundant information on “medical” conditions such as microcephaly, etc. but very little on intentional post-birth deformation. Could it be due to early “eugenic” focus on the implications of skull shape? If so, this is unfortunate: perhaps research on ACD has been neglected?

It is very odd that the people who expend so much time and energy on describing human skulls for the purpose of explaining human evolution, and those who purport to be the experts on human behavior, apparently aren’t interested in this subject.

____________________________________________________

A typical dismissal of any consequences to brain function: 

However, numerous studies have indicated that head binding has only negligible effects on the skull itself and that the inevitable modification of brain shape has no unfortunate side-effects. As long as the volume of the brain is unchanged, its functioning seemingly remains unimpaired.” Jun 13, 2016 

A Paracus skull, Peru

Note the implications for “frontal lobe” disasters: If high status “leaders” were impaired by this process, what effect would that have on executive functions? On decision-making abilities; on rational thought; on violent behavior?  

Artificial Cranial Deformation: Potential Implications for Affected Brain Function

Tyler G O’Brien1*, Lauren R Peters1 and Marc E Hines2 1 Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, USA 2 Department of Neurology, Covenant Hospital, Waterloo, USA

Full PDF: (provides good info on the developing brain)

https://www.omicsonline.org/artificial-cranial-deformation-potential-implications-for-affected-brai-function-antp.1000107.pdf

Abstract The anthropological study of the ancient cross-cultural practice of artificial cranial deformation (ACD), or intentional head modification, allows for the opportunity to assess the effects of functional interactions of the dynamic altered growth and development processes. Intentionally altering the infant skull is produced through mechanical means by attaching a device to the child’s head. Through the application of a deforming apparatus directly to the infant’s head, soon after birth and up to as long as four years, the child’s head becomes permanently altered. The amount of cranial modification and subsequent deformation is dependent upon the extent of time the molding apparatus is applied to the infant’s head. The longer the amount of time applied the greater the resulting stress and subsequent deformation. This paper explores the potential of inhibited cranial development or spatial disorientation and the subsequent effects it may have on adjacent functionally and morphologically related structures, especially as it pertains to brain function. A theoretical analysis is presented because of the practically non-existent data for this ancient practice. However, based on bioarchaeological and neurological analyses of the cranium and brain, it is highly suspected that ACD, in general, would have produced negative results to the lobes and abilities of the individual; such as: influencing vision, object recognition, hearing ability, impairing memory, promoting inattentiveness, inability to concentrate and motor aphasia, contributing to behavior disorders and difficulty in learning new information.

Discussion and Conclusions Since ACD is no longer popularly practiced only a theory can be generated about what implication these various ACD practices had on the individuals’ mental abilities and functions. Based on similar deforming conditions to the brain, like plagiocephaly, the results of these studies can help in understanding the circumstances of the past. Whether the pressures applied to these areas had harmful, beneficial, or insignificant influences can only be theoretically determined. A closer look at where pressure from the bands was applied on the various lobes of the brain, along with a fair, impartial consideration of the possible implications that occurred, sheds light on some interesting possibilities that ACD practices could have had on the individuals. The practice of annular ACD would affect the frontal and occipital areas of the skull. Pressure to these areas would potentially affect the functions correlated with these areas in the lobes of the brain. Using information and experiences from the modern world that simulate similar states helps to form a hypothesis of whether the implications were harmful or beneficial. Damage to the frontal lobe that has been documented by doctors shows that impairment to memory, inattentiveness, inability to concentrate, behavior disorders, difficulty in learning new information, and motor aphasia take place. Documentation also shows that the pressure from the bands, from both tabular and/or annular ACD, in the occipital region may have influenced vision and ability to recognize objects. Pressure to temporal areas may induce damage that results in changes of worsening hearing ability, agitation, and irritability [29]. In the cultures that practiced ACD, distant in both time and numerous other factors, it is possible that such deformations were of little significance to the society as a whole. However, it can generally be reasonably argued that most afterbirth deformational techniques do not improve functional outcomes of the tissues themselves. In a particular cultural or exposure setting however, one could argue that some advantage could be construed or obtained. The extent of these implications could have ranged from individuals due to duration and intensity of the pressure. An understanding of the full extent of the implications of ACD may never be met, but perhaps in the future more knowledge will be available through more research in the areas of craniosynostosis and plagiocephaly that could aid in this uncertainty.

much more…

More Mind Boggling Neurotypical Beliefs

I want to be frank about neurotypical beliefs that I find shocking. I attribute my reactions to having a “real world” factual and concrete Asperger brain, although I can’t say that every person diagnosed Asperger would share my reactions. We are individuals, with our own ways of seeing and interpreting the environment.

These strange beliefs have to do with death, revenge and punishment.

An jetliner vanishes over an ocean. Exhaustive searches take place long past the time interval that any passenger could survive under the best of conditions; the possibility is zero. Speculation goes on and on for months. Miracles are deemed possible: soon the airplane with everyone alive will materialize “out of the blue” due to  supernatural intervention caused by prayer. The families cannot accept that their loved ones have died. They become angry if they don’t receive a body; they must have a body to prove that the person is dead, otherwise they can’t achieve “closure.”

I’m not indifferent to suffering; I’ve lost family members and it has taken years to reexamine my relationships – this process toward understanding will continue until I die. “Closure” is a strange idea.

The quantum state of undetermined reality seems to be a factor in human thinking.

The quantum state of undetermined reality seems to be a factor in human thinking.

What baffles me is the state of limbo in which dead people remain for an extended time, that is, in the mind of the survivors; as if the person is in limbo in a quantum state: is he or she dead or alive? Only Schrodinger’s cat knows. It’s as if the person doesn’t die until the wreckage is found and bodies are identified, despite the overwhelming evidence that all on board died weeks or months ago. These traditions and beliefs run deep. The “quantum dead” effect is simply strange. 

A closely related belief is that “the remains” of a person contain an “essence” that can be recovered if the bones can be located and returned to descendants, or to a specific location. The act of placing the remains in a designated cemetery where “the person” can be visited, is believed to “honor” the dead and to confirm an event that happened decades before. This is an old tradition based in magic: bones are believed to possess contagious magical power. The Middle Ages were awash in the relics of saints, Kings, Queens and other powerful folk, and existing shrines are mobbed by pilgrims to this day. This tradition as deeply human, but I think it is healthy to accept that when the body dies, the person dies. What remains are memories.

What shocks me the most is that nations make a great display of “honoring” dead soldiers, but fail to honor living soldiers who have paid an enormous price in physical and mental trauma. 

Any person who dies unexpectedly, due to an accident or a crime, immediately becomes the “best person who ever lived.” This story-making is repeated over and over again, and I think much of the blame goes to the media’s intent on ambushing the victim’s family just as they receive the tragic news.

Regardless of circumstance, according to family and friends, the dead person was a great humanitarian who loved the world, was kind, helpful, generous, and if religious, a dedicated member of the faith. Pretty remarkable life history for anyone, and in some cases attributable to expected social exaggeration, but by repetition these fictions become true in the minds of many. What if a long history of drug abuse, criminal activity, domestic abuse or a willingness to “con” family members emerges? The person remains a saint: is this denial, face-saving, shame? Does a social “law” exist that says only “good people” can be mourned (only good people count.) Why must people lie about loved ones?

As an Asperger, I believe that everyone counts; each human life ought to be acknowledged and absorbed into the pageant that is humanity. 

Revenge and punishment = justice. This is a tough one; revenge is an impulse that can destroy a fair legal system, and needs to be recognized for what it is: magical thinking. The American system is highly variable, with laws, criminal prosecution and periods of incarceration in a “correctional institution” determined state by state. Other crime and punishment is controlled by the Federal courts. It is not these idiosyncratic systems that I can address.

Revenge as a driver of human behavior is familiar, and is a major cause of wars large and small, and drives conflict between ethnic, cultural and religious groups; between families, businesses etc. The resolution of conflict in many cultures was/is a matter of payment in kind: your uncle looses control and kills a man he suspects of cheating him. That man’s family vows revenge – kill the uncle! But an arrangement is made to “pay for” the death. This may seem cold or unfair to the victim, but the victim is already dead. Nothing will bring him back. Why should the living be dragged into an endless cycle of violence?

In the U.S., the victim’s family, friends, communities, law enforcement and the legal system demand “justice” for the victim, but what does this mean? In the U.S. Justice translates to conviction of an offender(s) and a long prison sentence. Life without parole has become a standard “request” for many crimes, the exact nature of which varies wildly from state to state and between jurisdictions. Often this results in solitary confinement; some prisoners endure this inhumane punishment for years, based on the demands of the victim’s family, the judge’s personal opinion of the offender, and judgments made by employees of the prison where the offender is kept. Many prisoners are denied parole well beyond the expected time period, due to the ongoing demands of the victim’s family. We might also note that in the American system, the mentally ill and developmentally disabled are included in the criminal class.

The magical (and subjective) aspect of this arbitrary system is that punishment meted out to the convicted criminal (assuming he or she is actually guilty) is believed to provide “something” for the victim and family. This can only be a retroactive supernatural satisfaction, injury or death cannot be magically erased. And yet, the prevailing belief is that suffering on the victim’s part can be “canceled” by imposing suffering on the “guilty.”

If this imposition of punishment, which is believed to be a deterrent to citizens committing crimes, were effective in the real world, then why has the incarceration rate in the U.S. skyrocketed? The creation of laws that criminalize selective nonviolent behavior has had a huge impact on minorities. Lack of sufficient education leads to unemployment and a new economic slavery. The resurgence of religious influence on government policy has contributed to a legal system bent on revenge and imprisonment that conveniently removes millions of citizens from normal lives. And in true American fashion, this magical revenge-punishment cycle is highly profitable.

_______________Some historical background

We can readily see that Puritan beliefs and attitudes condition our social policies today.

Just as in Europe, physical punishment was common in colonial America. Americans used stocks, pillories, branding, flogging, and maiming—such as cutting off an ear or slitting nostrils—to punish offenders. The death penalty was used frequently. In 1636 the Massachusetts Bay Colony listed thirteen crimes that warranted execution, including murder, practicing witchcraft, and worshipping idols. In early New York State, 20% of offenses, including pickpocketing, horse stealing, and robbery, were capital crimes.

Jails were used to hold prisoners awaiting trial or sentencing or as debtors’ prisons, but were not the punishment itself. The Puritans of Massachusetts believed that humans were naturally depraved, which made it easier for some of the colonies and the first states to enforce harsh punishments. In addition, since Puritans believed that humans had no control over their fate (predestination), so there was no possibility of  rehabilitation.

Pennsylvania

The Quakers, led by William Penn, made colonial Pennsylvania an exception to the harsh practices often found in the other colonies. The early criminal code of colonial Pennsylvania abolished executions for all crimes except homicide, replaced physical punishments with imprisonment and hard labor, and did not charge the prisoners for their food and housing.

Ideas of the Enlightenment

The philosophy of the Enlightenment (the Age of Reason) emphasized the importance of the individual. After the French Revolution of 1789, which was based on the ideas of the Enlightenment, western European countries abolished torture as a form of punishment and emphasized that the punishment should fit the individual’s crime(s). Rather than inflicting pain as the main element of correction, the idea of changing the individual became the goal. The French Revolution, however, also introduced the guillotine, a sophisticated beheading machine.

In England, John Howard (1726–90) wrote The State of the Prisons in England and Wales (1777), in which he described the horrible treatment of prisoners. Howard thought that prisoners should not be harassed by keepers who extorted from them, nor should they have to suffer malnutrition and disease. He advocated segregating prisoners by age, sex, and type of crime; paying the staff; hiring medical officials and chaplains; and supplying prisoners with adequate food and clothing.

Howard called the facilities “penitentiaries” (from the word “penitent,” meaning to be ashamed or sorry for committing a sin or offense) because he based his ideas on the Quakers’ philosophy of people repenting, reflecting on their sins, and changing their ways. Public concern led the British Parliament to pass the Penitentiary Act of 1779; it called for the first secure and sanitary penitentiary. The law eliminated the charging of fees. Prisoners would live in solitary confinement at night and work together silently during the day. Nonetheless, although Parliament passed the law, it did not actually go into effect until the opening of Pentonville Penitentiary in North London

http://www.libraryindex.com

raceinc

____________________One In Nine U.S. Prisoners Are Serving Life Sentences, Report Finds

by Nicole Flatow Posted on September 19, 2013 at 2:38 pm

A new report by The Sentencing Project finds that one in every nine prisoners is serving a life sentence, and the number of such prisoners has more than quadrupled since 1984. Nearly a third of those serving life sentences will never have a chance at a parole hearing. This accounting doesn’t even include the countless others who have effective life sentences, either because they are sentenced to very long terms such as 120 years, or because they sentenced to very long terms such as 120 years, or because they are sentenced later in life to terms that effectively mean death in prison.

The report includes a series of remarkable facts about the demographics of those serving life sentences:

  • The population of prisoners serving life without parole (LWOP) has risen more sharply than those with the possibility of parole: there has been a 22.2% increase in LWOP since just 2008, an increase from 40,1745 individuals to 49,081.
  • Approximately 10,000 lifers have been convicted of nonviolent offenses, including more than 2,500 for a drug offense and 5,400 for a property crime.
  • Nearly half of lifers are African American and 1 in 6 are Latino.
  • More than 10,000 life-sentenced inmates have been convicted of crimes that occurred before they turned 18 and nearly 1 in 4 of them were sentenced to LWOP.

 

 

 

What I’m reading today / Critique of theories of primitive religion

Theories of Primitive Religion 

PDF: https://monoskop.org/images/e/e1/Evans_Pritchard_E_E_Theories_of_Primitive_Religion_1965.pdf

BY E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Professor of Social Anthropology, The University of Oxford, / OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1965

Theories of primitive religion may conveniently be considered under the headings of psychological and sociological, the psychological being further divided into – and here I use Wilhelm Schmidt’s terms – intellectualist and emotionalist theories. This classification, which also accords roughly with historical succession, will serve its expository purpose, though some writers fall between these headings or come under more than one of them. My treatment of them may seem to you severe and negative. I think you will not regard my strictures as too severe when you see how inadequate, even ludicrous, is much of what has been written in explanation of religious phenomena. Laymen may not be aware that most of what has been written in the past, and with some assurance, and is still trotted out in colleges and universities, about animism, totemism, magic, &c., has been shown to be erroneous or at least dubious. My task has therefore to be critical rather than constructive, to show why theories at one time accepted are unsupportable and had, or have, to be rejected wholly or in part. If I can persuade you that much is still very uncertain and obscure, my labour will not have been in vain. You will then not be under any illusion that we have final answers to the questions posed.

May I suggest, that some clever anthropologist, take up the task of studying “Asperger People” in the way of Pritchard’s thinking; not from the pseudoscientific POV of Psychology, but as a complete system of human thought and culture.

Asperger types may find the NUER tribe (second half) of the video interesting.