New Study of Studies / Male to Female Ratio ASD

JAACAPJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

What Is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

University College, London UK



To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the –International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. (Thus – conclusions can only be as “accurate” as the data in the original studies) (Since DSM-V did away with Asperger’s as a diagnosis, how does this “deletion” affect this study?)


Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. The pooled outcome measurement was the male-to-female odds ratio (MFOR), namely the odds of being male in the group with ASD compared with the non-ASD group. In effect, this is the ASD male-to-female ratio, controlling for the male-to-female ratio among participants without ASD.


Fifty-four studies were analyzed, with 13,784,284 participants, of whom 53,712 had ASD (43,972 boys and 9,740 girls). The overall pooled MFOR was 4.20 (95% CI 3.84–4.60), but there was very substantial between-study variability (I2 = 90.9%). High-quality studies had a lower MFOR (3.32; 95% CI 2.88–3.84). Studies that screened the general population to identify participants regardless of whether they already had an ASD diagnosis showed a lower MFOR (3.25; 95% CI 2.93–3.62) than studies that only ascertained participants with a pre-existing ASD diagnosis (MFOR 4.56; 95% CI 4.10–5.07).


Of children meeting criteria for ASD, the true male-to-female ratio is not 4:1, as is often assumed; rather, it is closer to 3:1. There appears to be a diagnostic gender bias, meaning that girls who meet criteria for ASD are at disproportionate risk of not receiving a clinical diagnosis.

Hate to be snippy – but with the all the manipulation going on, is the “new” ratio of male / female ASD any more informative than a “good guess”? At least this group acknowledges the bias against clinical diagnoses of ASD in girls.


…And we are still expected to join the other inmates in the pink and purple social prison that confines female H. sapiens to low status.



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