Comparing Frontal Cranial Profiles in Archaic and Modern Homo by Morphometric Analysis
FRED BOOKSTEIN et al
There is an 8-page pdf for this paper, but once again I can’t get the URL to connect.
INTRO: Archaic and modern human frontal bones are known to be quite distinct externally, by both conventional visual and metric evaluation. Internally this area of the skull has been considerably less well-studied. Here we present results from a comparison of interior, as well as exterior, frontal bone profiles from CT scans of five mid-Pleistocene and Neanderthal crania and 16 modern humans. Analysis was by a new morphometric method, Procrustes analysis of semi-landmarks, that permits the statistical comparison of curves between landmarks. As expected, we found substantial external differences between archaic and modern samples, differences that are mainly confined to the region around the brow ridge. However, in the inner median-sagittal profile, the shape remained remarkably stable over all 21 specimens. This implies that no significant alteration in this region has taken place over a period of a half-million years or more of evolution, even as considerable external change occurred within the hominid clade spanning several species. This confirms that the forms of the inner and outer aspects of the human frontal bone are determined by entirely independent factors, and further indicates unexpected stability in anterior brain morphology over the period during which modern human cognitive capacities emerged.
(New Anat): 257:217–224, 1999. 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
External changes (such as the brow ridge) ARE NOT LINKED morphologically to the frontal brain, which has been stable for 500,000 years of cognitive development.