25 Best Habits / American Social Hierarchy Advice

Neurotypical nuttiness at it’s saddest and finest! – Americans are like poor lost souls perpetually searching for a “magic” cure to a hopelessly irrational life they have created for themselves.  American Life is a supernatural epic of shallow self-deceit – and of steep consequences for the rest of mankind.

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By R.L. Adam, entrepreneur
If you are committed to happiness and success, work these into your daily routine.

We are creatures of habit. Everything we think, say and do is a result of deep-seated habits etched into our minds through years and years of repitious behavior. Those very same habits either help to propel us forward or to hinder our progress in life. In fact, the state and quality of our lives right now is a direct reflection of our daily habits.

Habits are an undeniably powerful part of life. They’re an integral part of the underlying behavioral psychology that shapes the direction of our lives. They’re so integral that a study determined that approximately 45 percent of everything we do on a daily basis is driven by our habits.

Parting ways with our bad habits and replacing them with good habits is by no means a simple task. It takes commitment, willpower and an unwavering desire to overcome our seemingly natural tendencies to think, feel, speak and act in a certain way.

Related: 10 Bad Habits You Must Eliminate From Your Daily Routine

Clearly, for those absolutely committed to things like happiness and success, habits offer the pathway to enrichment in life. They’re also the tools we use to help automate our progress towards one end or another, assisting us with the achievement of our goals and the fulfilment of our dreams.

Still, for the most part, we’re often left in the dark. We’re unsure of ourselves or where to start on the road to developing good habits. What are the best habits to have in your life when you want to succeed or be happy? Are there some that usurp others, providing some secret magical recipe for achieving life’s loftiest goals?

What are the best habits to have in life?

While any list of habits concoted might seem subjective, there are, in fact, 25 particular habits that will not only help you to succeed, financially speaking, but will also keep you healthy, happy and fulfilled in life. Focus on these 25 habits, consistently making efforts to instill them into your daily routine, and in time, your progress and momentum towards your goals will skyrocket.

1. Wake up early.

The early morning hours are a time for peaceful reflection and ample productivity, where the world is still and asleep, allowing you to focus wholeheartedly on your long-term goals. Anyone who is serious about success in any measure knows that it’s important to wake up early.

Even if you’re not a morning person, use incremental changes in your daily routine to start waking up earlier and earlier. Begin by setting your alarm clock back by 15 minutes the first week, 15 minutes the next week and so on. Do this until you can wake up at least two hours earlier than you’re waking up now.

So that’s why I’m a “failure”. I’ve done everything possible to arrange my life so that I can wake up at a time that is natural for me.

2. Gratitude.

We spend a great deal of time immersed in our problems. But problems are also a sign of life. The only time we’ll lack problems is when we’re six feet under. And if you want to shift your focus away from your problems, you have to be grateful for what you have. Yes, even for your problems.

Gratitude is the surest pathway to health, happiness and success. It shifts our attention towards what we have rather than what we don’t have. It’s the natural abundance of simple pleasures and opportunities that we’ve been afforded with and blessed with that we often take for granted.

I agree totally about gratitude: but it’s difficult to be grateful for people who tell you that because you’re “different” you will never enjoy the blissfully “normal” life that neurotypicals “get” by default. I’m grateful for the life I have chosen that goes way beyond the boundaries set for me as an Asperger female!

3. Smile.

Studies have confirmed that people who smile a genuine smile (also referred to as a Duchenne smile) are happier in life. This is one of the best habits for allowing you to find emotional, mental and spiritual peace-of-mind over time — simply by placing a smile on your face.

The physiology of our bodies dictates the psychology of our minds. When we frown or slouch or do any number of other things that convey a sense of depression and unhappiness, our mind takes those cues and runs with them. However, once we shift our outward appearance by consciously adjusting ourselves, our inward feelings follow.

Thank-you for so clearly describing neoteny, American style. Human beings are mere surfaces, like Mr. and Mrs. Potato head; stick a smile on the potato and the potato will be happy. 

4. Eat a healthy breakfast.

Breakfast is an important part of life. Yet, 31 million Americans skip breakfast every single day. And that saying you’ve heard your entire life about breakfast being the most important meal of the day? It’s 100 percent true. If you’re serious about success, eat a healthy breakfast every single morning.

This single habit doesn’t take much effort. Some planning is certainly required, and if you’re rushing out the door every morning with barely any time to spare, you might want to consider waking up earlier to ensure that you wield this habit in your own life.

I do eat a healthy breakfast. Why? Because I have the TIME to cook a healthy breakfast.

5. Exercise.

One of the absolute best habits to have in life is to exercise every single day without fail. This isn’t about heavy weightlifting or running a marathon. This is about doing lightly strenuous activity to oxygenate your blood and boost the endorphins in your body.

Not only will you feel physically better when you start this habit, but you’ll also feel more motivated, have more mental clairty and be more emotionally sound. Exercise releases dopaminine, oxytocin and serotonin into the system, giving an almost euphoric effect without the usage of any drugs whatsoever.

I agree totally. Get off your ass and do something that is both physically stimulating AND pleasant, like walking in a natural environment away from people.

Related: Richard Branson: To Be Successful, Take the Stairs

6. Drink water with lemon.

One habit that has monumental health benefits is to drink a large glass of water with lemon every single day. Lemons are a natural source of Vitamin C, but also possess other health benefits — such as helping with your digestion, boosting your immune system, along with cleansing and rehydrating your body.

The water itself is also an important way to flush any toxins from your system early on in the morning when you first arise. Ultimately, over time, this will also aid with things like weight loss, a reduction in any inflammations and an overall boost in energy.

Thank-you for so clearly describing the American obsession with “magic bullets” – unfortunately this belief in cure-alls has a tendency to lead to drug addictions, which are habits that Americans are really good at developing.

7. Walk 10,000 steps.

Most people have heard about the benefits of walking at least 10,000 steps in a day. Yet, as a society, we tend to fall far short of that goal. One study, which provided shocking results of just how many steps we do take, compared that number to countries from around the world by studying participants from the U.S., Switzerland, Australia and Japan.

Americans, on average, take 5,117 steps a day. Compared to Australians, who take 9,695 steps per day, and residents of Switzerland, who take 9,650 steps per day, and those of Japan, who take 7,168 steps per day — we fall way short. Event still, this single habit is a great way to resolve our sedentary ways. Park further (farther) from the office or take the stairs when you can to help boost your daily steps.

Thank-you for describing the American obsession with “average” – unfortunately, “average” is a point on a curve on a graph: it’s a mathematical construct. Only specific organisms exist (that’s us). 

8. Vitamins and minerals.

As a culture, we lack the necessary vitamins and minerals through our food intake. Processed and refined sugars, carbohydrates and other foods that are a staple of the American diet help to exacerbate this problem. We simply don’t get the proper nutrients our bodies need on a daily basis.

Find a good set of vitamins and minerals that you can take every day. It’s easy to ignore this healthy habit, but the feeling after weeks and months of doing this on a regular basis, is tremendous. That impact can help us to improve other areas of our lives by providing mental, emotional and physical clarity.

Again: eat all the “crap food” you can stuff into your gullet; a magic vitamin pill will provide mental, emotional and physical “clarity” – whatever the Hell that is!

9. Effective time management.

An essential habit for succeeding at anything in life is effective time management. How well you manage the precious little time you have says a lot about what you can achieve. And considering that we all have the same amount of time in this world, how you leverage this resource will dictate your potential for success.

Find a good system for managing your time and implement it. This isn’t complex to do, but does require conscious and consistent effort. However, once this habit has been solidified into your daily routine, virtually anything is possible, and no goal will be too big to attain.

Actually, if a person has “precious little time” (for family, relaxation, exercise and good food, as well as art, music and other entertainments (TV and video games don’t count) then that person is not managing his or her LIFE – other people are “running” that person’s life. (The social hierarchy) Americans are obsessed with “being too busy too live” as the object of life itself: social status.

10. Daily goal setting.

Most people have goals. Whether it’s something to achieve in business or in life, we’re all moving in one intended direction or another. However, while long-term goals do give us direction, it’s the daily goals that we set that allow us to create short-term milestones that are integral to our success.

Long-term goals can seem overwhelming even in the best of times. But by implementing a daily goal-setting strategy, you can overcome some of the enormity associated with achieving big things in life by focusing on the one-day-at-time, short-term scenarios.

 “moving in one intended direction” “achieving big things in life” American gobbled-gook. If one follows these 25 habits, then one will be successful, yes? Why the stress on how hard it is to be a success?

11. Inspire yourself.

It’s often difficult to stay motivated for any considerable amount of time. We get discouraged and dissuaded from our goals when things arise in life that send us on tangents and veer us off track. But one of the absolute best ways you can stay motivated in life is to inspire yourself on a daily basis.

Read, watch inspirational videos and get inspired by stories of others who have achieved their dreams. Anthony Robbins calls this your “hour of power,” but you can spend as much or as little time on this as you need. Inspiration is the pathway to achievement because what the mind can conceive, it can achieve.

To achieve your dreams in the U.S. is too “get money”. One of the easiest ways is to contrive “How to” belief systems (easy – just resurrect the old social cult of positivity – it worked for American Christianity!) Apply magic symbols, supernatural spells, and flashy media technology to books, T-shirts, screen savers, cupcakes, sticky-notes and bottles of “vitamins” Make “inspirational” videos and appear on TV talk shows; flog the social media venues. 

12. Save and invest.

No good habit list is complete without one that calls for saving and investing. We often overlook the necessity to save for the future because we’re so busy living in the present moment. The truth is that most Americans have less than $1,000 saved up at any given moment.

But it’s not just about saving. You have to invest the money that you save, and do so wisely. The more attention you pay to this now, the more your life will be replete with financial success in the future. You should also be sure to have at least six months worth of savings in your account to stave off any potential financial calamity in the future.

Yes, investing is a sure thing: it’s a total mystery why millions of Americans lost their pension funds and portfolios in the last “raid” on the economy by Wall Street crooks, who were rewarded for their predatory crimes by “our government”. 

Related: Why Entrepreneurs Need to Save and Invest Money

13. Budget and track expenses.

Benjamin Franklin once said, “Beware of little expenses, a small leak will sink a great ship.” It’s easy to lose sight of little expenses, but they add up, especially when we fail to budget. Be sure to manage all of your expenses, and sweat the small stuff, so to speak.

This is good advice, but why does the U.S. government not do this? Congress isn’t the least concerned with budgets, other than borrowing incomprehensible sums from an imaginary future and impoverishing the so-called Middle Class? Well, they are the ELITEs after all; they get to do whatever they desire.

When it comes to sound financial habits, this is an important one to have, and one that will lend itself to your future financial success. The money saved on frivolous or extraneous expenses can be saved and invested for your future. Don’t ignore the future for sake of revelling in the present moment.

Another American favorite: Present contradictions wherever possible. Sacrifice today for a secure future – stop buying so much useless crap – but hey, we’re just kidding! Here’s another credit card. The economy absolutely depends YOU buying, buying and buying useless crap.  

14. Learn something new.

Educate yourself, and learn something new every single day. Committ to learning and improving your life, whether it’s by acquiring new skills or enhancing the existing skills you already have. From foreign languages to software programs and apps, you should carve out a small amount of time every single day to dedicate to this habit.

Whether you decide to learn something new through an online course, an audiobook, a blog post, a video tutorial on YouTube, or even through TED Talks or other means, the importance of implementing this habit is paramount. Find something that’s worthwhile learning and do just a little bit of it every single day.

Buy, buy, buy.

15. Organize.

Physical clutter results in a loss of focus. When our lives are disorganized and in a state of disarray, it’s hard to stay focused on our goals. Take the time to organize your home and office, and do just a little each day to enforce this habit. Take a single drawer and organize it, or organize a solitary corner of your home or even a cabinet in your office.

The importance of this habit is highlighted by a study in the Journal of Neuroscience titled, “Interactions of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms in human visual cortex,” which says “Multiple stimuli present in the visual field at the same time compete for neural representation by mutually suppressing their evoked activity throughout visual cortex.” In plain English — clutter lends itself to a major loss of focus.

Do we really have to resort to quoting “neuroscience” to explain a simple phenomenon? STOP BUYING useless crap and your living – work environment will be “not cluttered!” On the other hand; buy a house the size of a palace and buy more stuff to “fill it up. Once you’ve accomplished this “goal” make it a habit. Rent a dozen storage lockers for your 4,000 Christmas wreaths. Repeat, repeat, repeat.

16. Contribute to others.

In our quest to achieve and succeed, we often forget about others. We fail to contribute something of value to our fellow man, woman or child. This isn’t about donating money; this is about contributing your time, which is far more valuable than money. It also helps to shift your focus from a state of lack to a state of abundance.

We tend to spend too much of our time steeped in worry and anxiety. But, when you enlist the habit of contributing to others, you can easily alleviate your personal concerns, and even your problems, by realizing the necessity of helping others. In fact, it’s the people in this world that contribute the most value to others that end up achieving the greatest success.

Donate to rip-off charities and you’ll be “rewarded” by Jesus (or whomever is your controlling ELITE) , who wants you to be rich. Bake cupcakes, print T-shirts, have a “fun-run” – go to Heaven when you die. It’s just like “saving” for the future, by having fun now!

17. Network.

Clearly, it’s not just about what you know in this world. In order to succeed, we need to reach out to others — who you know is extremely important. But networking isn’t just about dropping names; it’s about finding ways that you can help and add value to the lives of others.

The best networkers in the world are also some of the most successful individuals. But they didn’t focus entirely on themselves at the outset. They always looked for ways that they could help others without thinking about receiving something in return. That’s how the world’s best networkers are born.

I’m getting ill just reading this hypocritical social garbage.

18. Break through fears.

We spend a lot of time immersed in fear. Those doomsday what-if scenarios play out in our minds throughout the course of any given day. We’re so worried and nervous about the future that we forget to enjoy the present moment. It’s so ingrained in our minds to fear things that it stifles our progress.

Breaking through your fears is quite possibly one of the most important habits that you could develop. Get used to doing one thing that makes you feel uncomfortable each and every single day. Talk to a stranger, give someone a compliment, or tell someone the truth about something that makes you feel uncomfortable.

As a lifelong Asperger, I can say unequivocally, DO NOT EVER tell a neurotypical person the truth, about ANYTHING, especially not those high in the social hierarchy.  LOL

19. Take action.

Take action. It’s a cliche that we’ve all heard repeatedly, yet it’s something that many of us fail to do. In fact, we do just the opposite — we procrastinate. We fail to take action for whatever number of reasons, hindering our progress and ability to achieve any of the monumental goals we set for ourselves.

The best way to overcome procrastination is to use the 15-minute rule. Take whatever it is that you’ve been putting off for the longest, set a timer on your phone for 15 minutes, and only commit to doing it for that long. Why only 15 minutes? First, it breaks the cycle of inaction. Second, after 15 minutes, you’ve built some momentum, so you might just keep on going.

Yes, Americans are so neotenic that this “magic rule” sounds like a winner! And, just maybe you need to buy a “new” phone that has a “cuter” timer interface.

20. Follow a plan.

Having a plan is integral to every successful entrepreneur — and person — throughout history. Whatever it is that you want out of life, not only do you need long-term goals and daily goals to help conceive, but you need to follow an intricate and detailed plan that you create along the way.

Without a plan, we often fail to realize our goals. Without understanding how we’ll get from point A to point B, it’s hard to see the cliched forest through the trees. But when you stick to a plan and track your progress, making changes along the way, you can eventually reach your goals as long as you don’t give up.

At last; something Americans really do well, as evidenced by our whopping big success in destroying the Middle East. (This diligent effort also fills our commitment to #16 “Contribute to others”)

Related: How to Improve Your Focus to Increase Your Effectiveness and Results

21. Enjoy “me” time.

One of the habits that most of us fail to implement in our lives is to enjoy some down time — or “me” time. Do one small thing that you love doing every single day. It’s not always about achievement and success. By doing one small thing that you love, you’re actually instilling peace of mind and re-focusing your center.

“Steal” a few minutes for “you” like a slave being allowed to stare at the sky and wonder, “What if I were free?”

Whether you listen to your favorite music pumping through headphones, take a walk through the park, go for a drive along your favorite road, watch a movie, or anything else for that matter, be sure that you always carve out some time for yourself in the day.

To an Asperger, this is one “bizarre” social idea, and it is fundamental to oppression: 

YOUR LIFE DOES NOT BELONG TO YOU. 

22. Implement positive thinking.

Like attracts like. When we think negatively, harboring negative thoughts, we attract negative things into our lives. When we think positive, we attract positive things. It’s hard to stay positive all the time, and it’s often our natural tendency to think negatively about things.

However, positive thinking is one of the surest pathways to the achievement of your goals. Ignore the naysayers and the people who doubt your abilities, and pursue the things that you love, staying positive all the while. It’s purely a matter of momentum. Think positively for long enough, and good things begin happening.

GO MAGIC! Magic words, magic thoughts, magic “magnets” – it’s all so fascinating  – to children.

23. Read.

Whether you read the newspaper, financial news, a novel, a non-fiction book, or anything else, find time to read something. Reading is an important habit to develop in life, and you shouldn’t rely on audiobooks or movies all the time. Good old-fashioned reading, the traditional non-screen way, does the trick.

Reading can help you uncover new worlds, ideas or ways of doing things that you might not have known about before. It’s also a great way to educate yourself or entertain yourself at any given moment.

24. Get ample rest.

Although it’s important to wake up early every day, it’s also imperative to get ample rest. Finding that delicate balance might be difficult, especially if you have kids, two jobs and other obligations. However, if you care enough about your physical well-being, along with your future success, you’ll focus on a minimum of six to eight hours of uninterrupted sleep every night.

If you have trouble falling asleep, be wary not to drink coffee or alcohol too close to your bedtime. Also, if you smoke, eat too much sugar, or ingest any other type of toxins throughout the day, you’ll find it difficult getting to bed at a decent hour. Cut those out of your routine so you can get some ample rest at night.

I think by now, all these “make time” instructions add up to a 72 hour day!

25. Journal your thoughts.

Journaling your thoughts is a great way to reflect on who you are and what you’ve been doing in life. Time can go by so quickly that we often forget the details of what we did even a few short months ago. Those details are often novel to recall as it adds clarity and purpose to our lives, reminding us of life’s lessons and joys.

Get in the habit of writing out your thoughts and journaling your experiences on a daily basis. Intertwine it with your goals, hopes and dreams for the future, writing out what you envision your life will look like down the road, then come back to read it later on to get a window into your mind at any point in your life. This is a powerful method for self-reflection, and also a great way to motivate and inspire yourself going forward into the future.

 

Getting started.

How many of the habits above have you already worked into your life? Are there bad habits that seem to continue holding you back from achieving any semblance of success and happiness? Bad habits can get in the way of our progress and quitting them is not easy by any means. However, it’s all a matter of momentum. It all boils down to small incremental steps that you can take day in and day out to help you build up the right repertoire of habits to help you achieve whatever your heart desires. The habits above are some of the best habits to have in life. How many of them will you agree and commit to taking on today?

 

Evo Psych Oversimplification / The Spin Doctors

Harvard Business Review / Organizational Culture (Consider the PURITAN ORIGINS of Harvard University.)

https://hbr.org/1998/07/how-hardwired-is-human-behavior

How Hardwired Is Human Behavior?

by Nigel Nicholson

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For comparison: See Previous Post / William James on Instinct

This article on “evolutionary psychology” may be truthfully labeled a “marketing tool” for promoting the myriad “services” that Evo Psychs offer to business, corporations and institutions for improving the control over their “stone age” employees.

Message? You can take the employee out of the Stone Age, not the Stone Age out of the employee.

Note the “sales pitch” Format of this Article: From info for writers on why to use “weasel Words”: Use ‘weasel words’ to modify statements, weakening any real meaning or force. This allows you to say anything without offending anyone or putting yourself into danger of being contradicted. Use weasel words assertively and their weakness will often all but disappear; Weasel words give you a way out, should anyone criticize you or make any counter-claim.

Article: Weasel words and deceptive claims

New fields of science don’t emerge in a flash, and evolutionary psychology—sometimes called modern Darwinism—is no exception. But over the past several years, evolutionary psychology as a discipline has gathered both momentum and respect. A convergence of research and discoveries in genetics, neuropsychology, and paleobiology, among other sciences, evolutionary psychology holds that although human beings today inhabit a thoroughly modern world of space exploration and virtual realities, they do so with the ingrained mentality of Stone Age hunter-gatherers. Homo sapiens emerged on the Savannah Plain some 200,000 years ago, yet according to evolutionary psychology, people today still seek those traits that made survival possible then: an instinct to fight furiously when threatened, for instance, and a drive to trade information and share secrets.

Human beings are, in other words, hardwired. (‘pop-sci” claim that compares the human brain to a computer is not legitimate)

That said, evolutionary psychologists do not argue that all people are alike underneath (but, they proceed with this assumption, as do “other” psychologists!) The discipline recognizes the individual differences caused by a person’s unique genetic inheritance, as well as by personal experiences and culture. Further, like other scientific theoriesthe Big Bang and global warming, to name two—evolutionary psychology is the subject of fierce debate. (See the insert “Evolutionary Psychology: A Convergence of Research and Controversy.”) NICE TRICK! Elevate your piss-poor opinions to the “level” of PHYSICAL SCIENCE – and bingo – Evo Psych is not only legitimate, but places itself in the scientific “big leagues” with physics, chemistry and all that “big important stuff”. Indeed, proponents and opponents of the field are becoming increasingly numerous and vocal.

Evolutionary Psychology : A Convergence of Research and Controversy

The central proposition of evolutionary psychology—that human beings retain the mentality of their Stone Age forebearsgathers its strength from six convergent sources of scientific research. (The tactic? Elevate your field, not only as “legitimate science” but position it as SUPERIOR TO the disciplines listed, because Evo Psych “subsumes” these disciplines, AND THEIR CONTENT under it’s Big New Magic Umbrella!)

Anthropology. By studying societies past and present, Darwinian anthropologists are identifying cultural universals with regard to gender relations, art and ritual, language and thought, and trading and competition. Patterns that recur across all societies, regardless of time and place, are thought to have a strong biogenetic origin. (Selectively construct a universal pattern and then say, “Oh look; a universal pattern!”)

Behavioral Genetics. Scientists in this field, drawing on research in genetics and on a growing number of studies on twins and adopted children, focus their research on the hereditary components of the mind. They have identified, for instance, several genes thought to control human dispositions, including aspects of temperament and cognitive skills. (WOW! How many weasel words can be crammed into two short sentences?  This outlandish “appropriation” and extreme generalization of genetic research is intended to “prop up” Evo Psych nonsense. I’m sure the Bio-Gen people are happy to have the Evo Psych people save them the “trouble” of explaining their own research.

Comparative Ethology. Comparing the mating, status-seeking, and social behaviors of monkeys, chimpanzees and other primates, scientists in this field have observed systematic patterns of behavior and analyzed where they reveal parallels in human behavior. In particular, they shed light on our basic programming for sexual politics and cooperative behavior and analyzed where they reveal parallels in human behavior.  (Monkey see, monkey do: if you claim that prior research has already proven your agenda, well –you can just proceed as if you have actually proven whatever it is that you are claiming to be ‘true” about human behavior”)

Neuropsychology. Using a variety of methods, including electrical stimulation, brain surgery, imaging techniques that film the brain in action, scientists in this field try to understand which parts of the brain control emotions and how chemicals in the brain affect thoughts and sensations. (And??)

Paleontology. Based on their analysis of fossils and ancient human remains, paleontologists believe they have discovered evidence of how human beings lived and how their characteristics adapted to the environment they inhabited. (Mumbo? Jumbo! This is pathetic – not how evolution works.)

Social Psychology. Studying social behavior in experiments and field studies, scientists have tested theories in evolutionary psychology (Total B.S.) about the conditions under which human beings cooperate, compete, and behave aggressively. Their findings about universal patterns suggest which impulses and reactions (that is; instinct and emotions) are hardwired into the human psyche. (WOW! Just how does one “wire” an abstract notion like the psyche? A positively supernatural activity! LOL Also, there is no “proof” that a computer is remotely close to modeling the brain; in fact, the brain is incredibly more complex than any artificial machine – this is “popular jargon” of the tech analogy brain = computer)

Even with the convergence of findings in these disciplines, (even with the pile of BS we just presented) the field of evolutionary psychology is controversial. Some scientists for instance, believe that evolutionary psychology overstates the biogenetic origin of cultural mores and norms and understates the capacity of learning and language to shape human nature. (which it does) (Tactic? Appear to be “evenhanded or objective about your gross flaws) Further, evolutionary psychology clearly challenges what some religions, including Christianity, believe about the creation and free will. (Setting Evo Psych against “religion” does not lend credence to Evo Psych: this is an illegitimate argument) 

And finally, the tenets of evolutionary psychology also directly dispute a great deal of popular management theory, which contends that people can change their personalities if correctly trained or motivated. Thus, evolutionary psychology may not be the only lens through which managers choose to view their work and their world, but it is a challenging perspective that calls for a closer look. (Here we finally have the intent of this article, and it’s the classic claim of all Puritanical despots: We are the elite experts: We know your “business” better than you do, and evolution (formerly; “god”) is on OUR SIDE: our “magic secrets” will save you tons of money. Instead of trying to educate and train your idiot employees, which is useless, because “evolution” (God) has decreed that they will forever be Stone Age idiots, we will share with you how to manipulate them; for a price, of course.)

But evolutionary psychology is by now well established enough to merit examination. Understanding evolutionary psychology is useful to managers because it provides a new and provocative way to think about human nature; (not “new” – this is standard archaic social hierarchy crap) it also offers a framework for understanding why people tend to act as they do in organizational settings. Put another way, evolutionary psychology, in identifying the aspects of human behavior that are inborn and universal, (original sin) can explain some familiar patterns. It sheds light on why people behave in ways that don’t appear to be beneficial to themselves or to their businesses.

Evolutionary psychology goes so far as to raise the questions: How might organizations be designed to work in harmony with our biogenetic identity? and Are modern-day executives managing against the grain of human nature?

This article is an extremely cynical use of language, which poses as “modern science” but is the same old Puritan dogma: a human-hating belief system that insists on control over the behavior of the “sinful” bone-headed peasants by THE ELITES!  

Whatever happened to Homo erectus? / He’s your Daddy!

Informal presentation of several problems in paleoanthropology that drive me batty.

Whole lot of guessin’ and fudgin’ going on!

This is Dr. Henry Gilbert. At last; an honest presentation of the current “mess” in paleoanthropology!

H. erectus did not go extinct in Africa…

 

EDUCATION:

2003-2005 University of California, Berkeley; Postdoctoral Scholar, Human Evolution Research Center

2003    University of California, Berkeley                 PhD, Integrative Biology

1994    University of California, Santa Barbara          BA, Biological Anthropology

 

Vivid Dream about “Being Social” / Tragic!

I’ve been dreaming now most mornings just before waking up: very vivid, like being there – a player in a “another universe” which I suppose the act of dreaming is much like. The contents of the brain, given a chance to build a reality of its own each night, will “talk to itself” in a way that can’t be done consciously (in verbal language).

Sometimes dreams solve problems!  I’ll set this up briefly:

I was at a beach area; thousands of happy people, in motion, in bathing suits and summer wear. So many children, laughing and energetic. Everyone a beautiful shade of brown; original or tanned – healthy looking. I was there with other people; a business trip? Some great event had occurred in the “real world” that everyone was talking about. A man I didn’t know started “hanging around” – we chatted and sat down at a large table with other people; talking, talking, talking. He became engaged in a conversation with the man next to him.

The table was very crowded – more people than there was room for, so I was crammed in next to a college student (Maybe this was spring break). I turned toward him and was practically in his lap, so I slid into his lap and hung onto his shoulders. He smiled and laughed and we talked very naturally.

Suddenly “it” happened: social censure! The area became quiet; people were staring at me. The man I had sat down with originally, got up and stomped away…

“You hurt poor So-and So’s feelings,” someone said.

There it was! I had just met old So-and-So, but he had already, in the eyes of the group, placed a tag on me, as if I were a moose he had shot; he now owned me. I was supposed to just sit there while he did whatever he felt like! This is how it always had been in “real life” – my dream was telling me how much I hate that feeling of ownership,  not only for myself, but as a foundation of the human social order. It’s crazy: “partnering up” means abandoning all but a few other human beings: and even those relationships are bound by strict conventions of behavior which become another “pyramid of power” that must be constantly re-negotiated, through bickering, obedience and subterfuge. One LOSES the world of “other people” and I find that wrong and tragic.

Ownership: It kills relationships. (Yes, this is a male moose)

Wow! The info one can find on the Internet:

To run or stay : anti-hunter behaviour of female moose

Johnsen, Steffen Masters Thesis

Abstract

In Norway, hunting is the main mortality factor of moose (Alces alces), with hunters killing approximately ¼ of the fall population each year. During 2009 and 2010, I studied escape behaviour of GPS/VHF-marked female moose when disturbed by humans, using 2 different methods: 1) Observing the hourly movements of individual moose in June when calving status was checked and during the hunting season while stalked by my hunting team; 2) Comparing the daily movements of GPS–moose during the hunting season in hunting units with and without hunters. During calf checking, no female moose defended her calf by aggressive behavior (ma moose with calf are very aggressive in the U.S.!); instead, the cows moved off, covering a mean distance of 1364 m (min: 117 m, max: 7326 m) before settling down after 2 hours. This indicated that human activity in the forest during the calving season involved little risk for either calves or humans. When flushed during the hunting season, the cows moved a significantly longer distance (mean 2338 m, min: 111 m, max: 6879 m). There were large differences within and between individuals in how far they moved when flushed. Again, no individuals showed aggressive behaviour. Some consistently fled a short distance, some always a long distance, and some were inconsistent, but flight distance was unrelated to survival during the hunting season. The distances cows moved decreased during the hunting season, regardless of disturbance. When hunters were present in a hunting unit, the daily movements of moose cows within the unit increased by an average factor of 1.16 and the percentage of moose moving more than the expected upper daily travel distance increased from 10 to 16.5 %. Although most moose will be shot sooner or later, the probability of a moose being killed when observing a human was low. Some moose were able to sneak around the observer, but most fled a distance sufficient to move out of a hunting unit of mean size 13 km2. I suggest that selection by human hunters against standing still and being aggressive may be a reason for the apparent naivety of moose towards recolonizing wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia.

 

Description

Master in applied ecology. Evenstad 2013

 

 

 

CARTA Lectures / Genus Homo Who What When Where

Very interesting! Several lectures – arguments as to which species ought to belong to “Homo”.

Reassessing earlier notions of the “Human mess” Busting assumptions is good!

Modern human growth curve? Extended “childhood” – think neoteny. The age of “Turkana boy” is estimated here as 7-8 years old; the previous consensus is about 12 years old. This greatly influences the “growth curve” hypothesis.

We can’t seem to shake this notion that 2 million years of ‘homo” evolution was aimed at producing modern humans; ie all the “others” were failures. Each organism has its place to fulfill in the “web” of life forms – WE ARE NOT THE MEASURE OF SUCCESS – That is a MYTHIC NARRATIVE WHICH HUMANS HAVE CREATED. Evolution is not about “ultimate success” of one species with the “rest of nature” just hanging around for us to exploit! That idea has led us on the path of to destroy life on earth. We may prove to be the Biggest Evolutionary failure possible!

 

A Request for info from readers / What country do you live in?

WordPress stats provided to “free” blogs are minimal and inaccurate. (useless) The stats WP collects are useful to THEM, but not to bloggers.

Here’s my problem –

About 1/3 of “so-called” visits come from outside the U.S. each day. To me, this is a matter of curiosity: what posts are people from other countries reading? The subject of ASD / Autism is a “core” for the blog, but I connect to many subjects that I find relevant or possibly serve as “clues” to unravel the mess. WordPress has absolutely no interest in providing a match up between “country of visitor” and which posts he or she  viewed.

I just want one thing:

If you are from outside the U.S., could you simply state in a comment box attached to the posts you read, your country (or even region)? The simplest way is to just type the country name in a comment block. I’m not fishing for info like your name, your dog’s favorite brand of food, your political views, your religion or bank account numbers.

Of course, any comment on topics that interest you, that you find are confusing, or that you disagree with, would be appreciated.

That’s it!

I would like this info because the number of posts in the blog is way too high! (About 1200) I’d want to eliminate or combine duplications, or out of date content, but have NO IDEA what interests people overseas. I suspect many “visits” to Asperger Human are by accident or keyword mistake.

Unfortunately, comments in languages other than English usually get sent automatically to spam.

THANK-YOU

Noise Effects Handbook / Health and Welfare Effects EPA, 1979

 NOISE EFFECTS HANDBOOK

A Desk Reference to Health and Welfare Effects of Noise

By Office of the Scientific Assistant, Office of Noise Abatement and Control
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, October 1979, Revised July 1981

  • Published by the National Association of Noise Control Officials
    P. O. Box 2618, Fort Walton Beach, Florida 32549
  • EPA 500-9-82-106

TOPICAL OVERVIEW (Links are active)

  1. The National Noise Problem
  2. Hearing Loss: normal auditory function, hearing loss criteria, presbycusis, hearing conservation, hearing impairment formulas
  3. Nonauditory Physiological Response: stress, arousal response, cardiovascular effects, effects on the fetus
  4. Communication Interference: factors that affect speech interference, masking, measurement of masking and speech interference, levels and criteria, special populations, overcoming speech interference
  5. Performance Interference: detriments of interference; qualities of noise and their relationship to performance interference; noise-sensitive tasks; effects on children; positive effects; and injury rates
  6. Sleep Disturbance: falling asleep, awakening, arousal and sub-awakening effects; criteria; noise and non-noise factors; other considerations
  7. Subjective Response: (individual, psychological responses) : special populations, coping behavior, antisocial behavior, decrease of helping behavior
  8. Community Response: criteria, activity interference, predictors of community annoyance, relation to population density, urban survey findings
  9. Health and Welfare Analysis: how it is carried out in regulatory development; fractional impact; level-weighted population
  10. Summary of Human Effects of Noise from Various Outdoor Noise Levels
  11. References
  12. Index

Isn’t it amazing? This handbook was published 38 years ago by the EPA and yet the “mystery” of noise-caused negative reactions in ASD-Asperger diagnosed people not only continues, but is attributed to “defective development” of our brains.

The handbook is crammed with excellent info: Example, under Subjective Response:

What kind of mental or psychological effects can occur with excessive noise exposure?

Excessive noise exposure can bring about a wide variety of psychological responses or symptoms in the individual. A person may respond with anger, or experience symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, and/or general emotional stress. Noise may negatively affect work performance because of reduced worker morale and motivation. Distraction and poor judgment may result from mental fatigue. (14)*

And:

What physiological changes occur in response to noise?

Loud sounds can cause an arousal response in which a series of reactions occur in the body. Adrenalin is released into the bloodstream; heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration tend to increase; gastrointestinal motility is inhibited; peripheral blood vessels constrict; and muscles tense. On the conscious level we are alerted and prepared to take action. Even though noise may have no relationship to danger, the body will respond automatically to noise as a warning signal. (14)

 

 

Sick Building Syndrome and ASD / Sensory Sensitivity

Regarding the supposedly “developmentally defective” state of ASD – Asperger individuals as “over-sensitive” to the environment: The faulty assumption is made that “typical, normal, typically developing” humans are not affected by, or damaged by, manmade environments. This is preposterous – an organized lie promoted by corporations, whose blatant predatory behavior is legitimized and protected by government laws and policies.
This “acceptable” system of abuse reflects a callous disregard for the health and safety of ALL humans.

This list encompasses only the pollutants common in buildings: one cannot escape these dangers by retreating to the outdoors. All environments on the planet have been altered by human activity. This list also does not include overcrowding, industrial accidents, destruction of natural environments, extinction of plants and animals necessary to healthy systems, lack of clean water, nutritious food and the effects of processed foods. And – toxic social environments: war, violence and abuse of every imaginable type wherever hyper-social humans dominate the environment.

The Environmental Illness Resource: Mission Statement

http://www.ei-resource.org/illness-information/related-conditions/sick-building-syndrome/

“The Environmental Illness Resource seeks to provide those with environmental illnesses with information of the highest quality in the hope that this will lead to improved quality of life and perhaps even recovery of good health. In addition, to provide a free and open online community in which members may exchange information between themselves and support each other in their healing journeys.

Chemical Pollutants:

Combustion Pollutants

Various chemical pollutants that can affect the health of a building’s occupants are produced when heating systems or gas fired appliances such as stoves are poorly maintained, and thus don’t burn fuel efficiently, or don’t vent exhaust correctly.

The main pollutants from this source are:

Carbon Monoxide (CO) – a gaseous asphyxiant, CO is known as the ‘silent killer’ as it is colourless and odourless. When it is breathed in CO binds to red blood cells preventing them from carrying oxygen and essentially suffocating the victim. Methylene Chloride may also breakdown to form Carbon Monoxide as well. Methylene Chloride is a common toxic solvent used in many products such as paint and paint strippers.  Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) – is a colourless gas with a strong odour like that of a struck match. Sulphur dioxide is an irritant to the respiratory system and exposure to high concentrations for short periods of time can constrict the blood vessels in the lungs and increase mucous flow, making breathing difficult. Those most at risk from these effects include children, the elderly, those with chronic lung disease, and asthmatics. Other harmful effects of SO2 include it’s ability to impair the respiratory system’s defenses against foreign particles and bacteria when chronically exposed to low concentrations, and enhance the harmful effects of ozone.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) – is another toxic gas produced from combustion of fuels. It can be fatal in high concentrations, whilst lower levels, like SO2, act as irritants to lung tissue. Long term low level exposure can destroy lung tissue and lead to emphysema. Long term exposure also makes people more susceptible to respiratory infections such as pneumonia and influenza. The risk of ill-effect is greatest for the same groups most affected by SO2.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Volatile organic compounds are organic (carbon-based) compounds that evaporate at ambient temperatures within a building. VOCs can ‘offgas’ from building materials and much of the contents of most buildings. These compounds often have effects on health from irritating the eyes, nose, and throat, to causing breathing difficulties, to increasing the risk of developing cancer. An example of a VOC commonly present in indoor air is formaldehyde, which is also one of the most toxic being both a strong respiratory irritant, and carcinogen.
Building Construction – High levels of formaldehyde offgas from particle board. Modern buildings or buildings renovated with modern materials suffer the most from offgassing of VOCs due to the extensive use of particle board rather than solid wood or stone/brick for interior walls etc. Particle board is also often used in place of solid wood in modern furniture such as computer desks and shelving. Although a cheap alternative to other materials, particle board is a major source of VOCs due to the high content of powerful adhesives used in its manufacture. Formaldehyde and other VOCs offgas from particle board used in building construction and furniture for years, with the highest concentrations being generated in the first 6 months.

Carpeting is another major source of VOCs in many buildings since a large number of chemicals are used in their manufacture in the form of glues, backing materials, flame retardants, and dyes. The specific VOCs that offgas from new carpet include acetone, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, and benzene derivatives. These chemicals are all known to cause irritation, effect breathing, and produce various neurological symptoms. Many of them are also potent carcinogens.

Finishes such as paints and varnishes can also increase the VOC content of a building or room. That fresh paint smell is the result of paints high content of VOCs in the form of solvents and binders. In the case of oil based paints, whose use if thankfully being reduced in indoor paints, the entire base of the paint is made up of VOCs. The US EPA has determined that the off-gassing from architectural coatings is estimated to account for about 9% of the VOC emissions from all consumer and commercial products. Many of the VOCs used in paints have ben banned or are being phased out as they are now recognized to be highly toxic and/or carcinogenic.
Chemicals Used Within A Building – The various chemical based products routinely used inside a building can be an equally large source of VOCs. Products that contain VOCs range from chemical products used to clean a building to marker pens and printer ink, common in an office or school environment.

Cleaning products contain a range of toxic VOCs including diethyl phthalate, found in a range of products, toluene, found in stain removers, and hexane/xylene, found in aerosol sprays. Diethyl Phthalate is a known endocrine disrupter (interferes with hormone activity), toluene is a known carcinogen (cancer causing agent) and can cause neurological problems, and finally both hexane and xylene can also damage the nervous system.

Marker pens are a particularly concentrated source of VOCs as their very strong smell indicates. Their chemical constituents include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, and formaldehyde. The VOCs present in marker pens have various consequences for human health including neurological effects. Ink cartridges and toners used in printers also contain VOCs, albeit at less concentrated levels than marker pens.

Electronic equipment also offgases a large amount of VOCs. In an office full of computers, these essential pieces of equipment can be a substantial source of VOCs which offgas from materials such as flame retardants and various other chemicals used in their manufacture.

Besides the above there are many other sources of VOCs within the average office building or other communal building. These include air fresheners, personal care products such as deodorants and perfumes, and laundry detergent and fabric softener residues on the occupants clothing.

For a more detailed look at some of these VOC sources see our multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) page.

Heavy metals

Although much has been done to reduce or eliminate the use of heavy metals in buildings in over the past few decades, older buildings may still contain a significant amount of these highly toxic substances. Buildings built or extensively renovated after the early 90’s in most developed countries are not likely to have a problem, but many buildings constructed before this time could pose a risk for heavy metal poisoning. The two most common heavy metals present in buildings are lead and mercury.

Indoor paint manufactured before 1990 and outdoor latex paint manufactured before 1991 may contain mercury, which was added to paint mainly to prevent build up of mold on walls, as mercury is an effective antifungal agent. Mercury can damage health in a number of ways, from impairing detoxification to causing serious neurological damage and birth defects. In fact, the mercury containing compound thimerosal was routinely added to vaccines to prevent contamination by fungi and bacteria until concern about its role in causing autism recently lead to its removal. (This does not translate to: vaccines themselves cause autism.) Mercury may also be present in small amounts in computer and electronic equipment.

Lead is another common problem in older buildings because it was also added to paints until a couple of decades ago. Lead-based paint is still a major problem in older buildings particularly when the residues are disturbed and become airborne such as during renovation or construction projects. Like mercury, lead can cause severe neurological damage and a host of other problems.

Unless disturbed by renovation it’s unlikely that heavy metals would be a major contributor to cases of sick building syndrome. For older buildings the risk is there however so must always be considered. (note that poor people are more likely to be chronically exposed to “sick” buildings)

Biological Pollutants

As well as the chemical pollutants described above, various biological contaminants often contribute to cases of sick building syndrome. In fact biological factors are reported to be behind the majority of cases. These biological pollutants can cause illness through three different mechanisms:

  • Infection
  • Allergy/Hypersensitivity
  • Toxicosis – symptoms caused by toxins produced by micro-organisms e.g. mycotoxins produced by mold/fungi

There are many sources of biological pollution that can affect a building and many reasons why a building might become contaminated and cause illness in its occupants.

The following are the main sources of this form of pollution:

Toxic Black Mold – is reported to be the leading cause of sick building syndrome and building related illness. Mold grows rapidly in warm and damp environments. If the indoor environment is too humid or if water damage occurs through leaks or rising damp, mold growth is very likely to occur.
Viruses & Bacteria – are common in every building, especially high occupancy buildings such as offices and schools. These micro-organisms can make a significant contribution to causing SBS. They become increasingly problematic if humidity levels are either too low or too high, as a result of how their growth is affected and the fact that our defenses against them are also affected by humidity levels.
Dust Mites – are highly allergenic and thrive on the constant supply of shed human skin cells that accumulate in carpeting, soft furnishings, and other areas. Like mold and bacteria, dust mites like the warm and relatively humid environment that we usually provide in our buildings.
Pollen – is another allergy causing substance that can accumulate in a building if proper ventilation and filtering is not maintained. Pollens from various trees and plants can be troublesome for a great number of people. Aside from being carried on breezes through open doors or windows, pollens can also be brought indoors on the occupants shoes and clothing.
Insect Body Parts – although not well known are especially potent allergens for some people. Cockroach allergens are particularly troublesome allergens and are commonly implicated as contributors to sick building syndrome. Usually become a problem only when sanitation is poor.

The above are collectively known as bioaerosols. The common definition of a bioaerosol is any extremely small living organism or fragment of living things suspended in the air. They cannot be seen without a magnifying glass or microscope. Of course when a large growth of mold occurs, it does then become visible to the naked eye.

Reasons For a Building Becoming Contaminated by Bioaerosols

Moisture –The primary reason why bioaerosols become a major problem in buildings is the presence of damp in the buildings structure and/or a high level of humidity in the air. There are numerous reasons why such a situation could arise, some of the most common being:

  • Water damage to homes from flooding or storm damage.
  • Leaks in plumbing, roofs, or from air conditioners or HVAC systems.
  • Condensation on central air pipes, HVAC components, or other cool surfaces where insulation may not be present, is insufficient, or has become damaged. Uninsulated air conditioning coils or pipes will “sweat” the most when hot humid air contacts them such as during warm months.
  • Ice damming on building roofs which allows water to seep under shingles and through roof sheathing.
  • Dehumidifiers and humidifiers.
  • Pets
  • Moisture from unvented or poorly vented kitchens and bathrooms.
  • Poor insulation causing drafts or the “chimney effect”.
  • Defective heating and air systems such as clogged condensation drain lines and full drip pans.

Hygiene and Cleaning – Poor sanitary and cleaning practices also contribute to a building becoming contaminated with bioaerosols. In a high occupancy building for example, germs from bathrooms can easily be spread to the rest of the building if they are not cleaned and disinfected both effectively and regularly. People not washing their hands after using the bathroom can also be a big problem.

Another problem is often inadequate or poorly maintained cleaning equipment. A poorly functioning vacuum cleaner for example can do more harm than good by spreading dust around rather than picking it up. As we have heard, dust is a breeding ground for micro-organisms like dust mites that cause allergies in many people. It may also contain other allergens such as pollens that have either blown into the building or been carried in by the occupants. Dust may also harbour disease causing bacteria and other unpleasant organisms. Efficient vacuum cleaners are thus essential pieces of equipment for avoiding a sick building. Models equipped with HEPA filters which remove even the tinniest particles are infinitely preferable.

Going back to chemical pollutants, growing research shows that chemicals, such as flame retardants that are commonly used in electrical equipment and on furniture, accumulate in dust. If a building is not kept free from dust by regular and effective cleaning, the amounts of chemicals present will only increase and pose an ever greater risk for the occupants health.

Other Factors That May Contribute to Sick Building Syndrome

Besides the more obvious chemical and biological pollutants that are commonly present in buildings and can lead to SBS, there are a number of more subtle factors that can also contribute, sometimes significantly. The most common of these are:

Fluorescent Lighting and Electrical Equipment – People commonly report feeling unwell after spending time in buildings lit entirely with fluorescent strip lighting. The flickering light is very harsh and tends to give even otherwise healthy people headaches and make them feel drained. Many people also complain of feeling unwell when they spend time close to computer screens and other electrical equipment. It has been suggested that high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which are generated by electrical equipment and a building’s wiring can cause a host of unpleasant symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, and inability to concentrate. Electrical Hypersensitivity (EHS) is the term used to describe the condition in which people are made ill by electromagnetic radiation.

Temperature – Although many would dismiss the ambient temperature within a building as a minor consideration, an environment that is either too hot or too cold can have a major effect on how people feel. With extremes of temperature the body has to work hard to maintain its own internal temperature at the right level. With resources focused on this task people can quickly become tired and drained and experience a wide range of symptoms. If the temperature is too hot for prolonged periods for example, people can become dehydrated with potentially serious consequences for their health.

Humidity – again can put a strain on the body as it tries to maintain equilibrium. Like high temperature, a very humid environment can lead to dehydration and associated problems.

Noise – is an equally important factor. Too much noise can be draining and produce headaches and other symptoms. It also makes it hard to concentrate so impacts on the productivity of workers in an office for example.

Bad Office Design/Ergonomics – A badly designed workplace can cause numerous health problems. A cramped office with uncomfortable furniture can result in injuries such as those to the back as well as injuries such as repetitive strain injury (RSI) from repetitive tasks such as typing.

Psychological Stress – is another important consideration in an office building in particular. Stress can be caused by work pressures such as deadlines but also by all of the other factors we’ve discussed here that often relate to a building’s design. Stress is a leading cause of absenteeism as it can result not only in psychological distress but also many physical ailments as well.  In many cases, SBS is a major issue and requires a complete redesign in order to rectify the problem. If an office or room needs to be stripped down and redesigned with new items, then a quick Google search might be in order. Or you could check out the Homeclick Twitter feed for contemporary ideas. In the end, the problem (if not remedied) will eventually worsen, creating an uncomfortable and potentially hazardous workplace.

What Can be Done About Sick Building Syndrome?

If you and other people living or working in the same building experience health problems that seem to only be present when you are in that building, or at least get much worse, then it is reasonable to suspect sick building syndrome. You should report the situation to the landlord, office manger, or whomever is responsible for the building and ask them to have an inspection carried out. If they are unwilling to cooperate then you may have to get local authorities such as an environmental health agency involved.

After a thorough environmental health inspection is carried out on a building to determine possible causes for the occupants health complaints, there are many measures that can be taken to rectify the situation. A combination of some of the factors we’ve discussed above will usually be involved and all will have to be tackled. Measures taken may include an overhaul or replacement of the ventilation system, structural repairs to prevent leaks and damp, a review of chemicals used in the building, a review of cleaning practices, and professional mold removal.

The important thing is to take action to have a suspected sick building investigated as soon as possible as it is likely that the problem will only get worse if not addressed.