A Look Back / 2001 paper on abuse of “retarded” people

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(Below my comment) is the link to a paper from 2001 that discusses the tangled categories, labeling, and confusion over diagnosis and attitudes toward “the retarded” that exist in the “helping, caring, fixing” industry; a mess which has only gotten more stupidly befuddled (taken over by pseudoscience-for-profit) over the past 16 years.
A severely limited and pathology-based social construct of “what it means to be human” has all but obliterated a medical point of view. The shift from biological “deficits” to “social deficits” in the definition of “retardation” (now ASD) has profoundly affected those Asperger individuals who do not have cognitive deficits, but are “lumped into” a spectrum of people whose common “offense” is to annoy neurotypicals!
To be labeled “socially retarded” in a society strangled by conformity of belief and behavior, is to be exiled from participation in the community; to be forever marked as an “outsider”.
This prejudice also misdirects funding and education away from “biologically affected” individuals, who need and deserve the support that can overcome many “functional problems”. 
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The same tactic is used to “shut up” anyone who questions the status quo.

Inappropriate “policy and treatment” (based on the secular religious dogma that constitutes  psychology and the social non-sciences), when directed at Asperger children, actually harms them, and society, by denying a legitimate type of human personality its “way of operating” in the world. This is a waste of lives and talent. But – any Asperger who points out “facts” that may clarify some of the “social mess” that is the contemporary mish-mash of ASD, is to incur accusations that this “disobedience to authority” is “proof of mental disturbance” that nullifies anything that an Asperger may say, regardless of common sense observation. Aided by this slander, in the public mind, “Aspergers are assholes” (for pointing out mistakes in socially- biased perceptions) has become the “definition” of being an intelligent analytical fact-oriented person.  
 
The focus of the paper is sexual abuse, but the authors offer a “sane” description of those factors that contribute to the sad state of American neglect and persecution of “disabled, retarded, mentally ill” people and the failure to truly face up to facts. 
The Pathology Obsessed have indeed pulled off a spectacular “miracle” – the INVERSION of intelligence as a developmental defect.
__________________________

There has been much “blah, blah, blah” awareness activity over the decades, which is interpreted by social typicals as “doing something”, but as usual, empathy and reason, and the fundamental concept of justice, which are the basis for concrete action, prove to be beyond the capacity of the neurotypical “social brain”.

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PMCID: PMC181173

Sexual Abuse of the Mentally Retarded Patient: Medical and Legal Analysis for the Primary Care Physician

I’ve clipped some highlights: please go to full article.
Profile of Individuals With Mental Retardation

“Individuals with mental retardation fall within a spectrum of abilities, characteristics, and personal attributes, as is seen in any general population. However, mentally retarded individuals have developmental delays in learning, processing information, and independently caring for themselves. Such individuals show marked delays in adaptation to a changing environment. Yet even so, nearly 85% of these individuals are able to live successfully in the community.1

“The quest to find accurate terminology describing this group of individuals has been historically fraught with sensitivity and intense debate. This article uses the standard terms mentally retarded individual or the mentally retarded, both of which are in accordance with the terminology used by both the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), a strong advocacy group for this population.”

“The reader should note that the term developmentally disabled denotes a broader category that encompasses those with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or other neurologic conditions closely related to mental retardation.2 Likewise, terms such as mentally defective, imbecile, cretin, and mongoloid, although still found in state statutes and medical texts, are considered offensive by modern standards.”

Medical Classification of Mental Retardation: Three Required Criteria From DSM-IV-TR

“The AMA follows the 3 criteria set forth by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to diagnose mental retardation, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)3 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation (Table 1).” (Discussion of IQ determination follows)

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“…the adaptive functioning of an individual is an evaluation of his or her ability to fulfill the daily activities necessary for self-sufficiency.7 It can be measured either with direct observation, with a standardized test such as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, or with both techniques8 (Table 2). Unlike the IQ test, which is given in one setting, this evaluation may require several observations and several examiners to compile a composite of the individual’s functioning. In addition to a subaverage IQ, the individual must have a deficit in at least 2 of the 11 DSM-IV-TR Section B skill categories: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety.7 Because the majority of the mentally retarded are educable, their deficits in adaptive functioning are amenable to positive improvement with proper education.7 Mentally retarded individuals have been shown to gain adaptive functioning skills in areas in which they were once deficient.9 Generally, these adaptive behaviors improve over the course of a lifetime.”

Four Categories of Mental Retardation

“Mild mental retardation is the most common category and is typified by an IQ of 50–55 to 70. Approximately 85% of mentally retarded individuals are classified as mildly retarded.7 In keeping with professional opinion that the environment can both positively and negatively affect a child’s mental development, it is documented that mild retardation is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic groups.7 A mildly retarded individual is able to be educated up to the 6th-grade level and thus can obtain vocational training. As such, these individuals are usually capable of maintaining a steady job and living in the community.12 With varying degrees of social and communication skills, such mildly affected individuals are able to live in the community with minimal supervision.7 Since it is possible for mildly retarded individuals to be out in the community working and interacting with others with a high degree of personal freedom, this group is the most likely to have real issues regarding sexual activity, including sexual consent, assault, and abuse.”

Much, much more…..

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